15-bharat ki taajposhi-hakim rai vicerai vahmi

For word meanings and explanatory discussion in English click on the “Roman” or “Notes” tab.  The “Introduction” tab offers a background of the whole series of posts that constitute a patchy reconstruction of the ramayan.

The ramayan has fascinated minds in India and worldwide for millennia, for the beauty of its literary composition, for its fascinating story content as well as for faith and reverence.  It is not surprising then that the Ramayan has been translated not only into all major languages, but also into unexpected ones like Polish, Norwegian and Swedish.  What is surprising is that there are more than twice as many poetic translations/trans-compositions of the ramayan in urdu as there are of the qur’aan and that the ramayan was translated into urdu even before the qur’aan was.

A book “urdu meN hindu dharm” (Hindu Religion in Urdu), Ajai Malviya,  written in Urdu, catalogues in detail urdu translations of the vedas (66), ramayan (103), mahabharat (38), bhagwad gita (83), puranas (44), manu smriti (4), biography of vashisht (14) and miscellaneous other religious compositions (472) spanning about 200 years of publications.

Why has this significant piece of literature been relegated to a neglected and ignored heap of disdain?  This needs to be corrected.  The sheer number and the high poetic and linguistic quality of this literature surprised me as I worked to string together representative parts of urdu nazm/poems of ramayan by different poets, like pearls strung in a necklace, into a near complete story.

A close reading of urdu ramayan translations offers some fascinating lessons about mingling of cultures in India, the origins and “ownership” of Urdu language, the power of the pen across languages and cultures and the universality of basic human emotions.  One is struck deeply by the acceptance and seamless adoption of multiple religious traditions as indicated by the observation that many ramayan renderings (even some by hindu poets) start with “bismillah ir-rahman ir-rahim” and a “hamd” (an ode and/or expression of gratitude to god).  Since god, like language, has no religion, these odes/hamd/vandana are entirely secular/universal. 

It is highly contentious to say that urdu is a muslim language (as if a language has religion) or even to say that urdu is a language of muslims.  There are large numbers of muslims (Bengal, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka) who do not know/speak urdu.  One of the important reasons that East Pakistan separated and declared baNgladesh was that it did not want urdu to be imposed on it in preference to its own language, beNgali.

Of the 100 or so translations/re-compositions of the ramayan in urdu more than 80 were written/composed by hindu writers/poets.  In most, if not all cases the poets were orthodox, believing, practicing hindus.  Why were they writing the ramayan in urdu?  I speculate that there must have been a large section of literate hindu population who considered Urdu their primary language, not because of political favours but because it was naturally their language.  Some of the poets who re-composed tulsidas’ ramcharitmanas suggest that because it was written in “bhaaka or bhaasha” and not easily available to everyone.  Therefore, they translated/re-composed it in urdu, perhaps implying that this is more comprehensible than “bhaaka/bhaasha”.  Apparently by the 1800s neither avadhi nor braj bhaasha were considered a common language.  To show the role urdu played in devotional traditions of north Indian hindus, I paraphrase from a book by bishweshwar parshad munavvar, himself a poet and son of dwaarka parshad ufaq (another poet of renown, who composed a full urdu ramayan).  He writes that, because of the effort of munshi jagannath Khushtar (1809-1864) and munshi shankar dayal farhat (1843-1904) in translating hindu religious texts into urdu, the teachings of the ramayan saved the hindu religion from further decline.  Before we run away with the image of an alien force coming down to “save” hinduism, it might be useful put this quote in perspective.  We have to make an effort to understand that what he might have meant is that there was a substantial community of hindus to whom religious texts were not comprehensible because they were written either in sanskrit or avadhi while their primary language of learning was urdu.  Thus, these translations made religious texts available to them.

Surely these poets, most of whom were believing and observant hindus must have had an audience/readership of similarly devout believers, who revered the composition itself and must have had the linguistic finesse to enjoy its literary excellence.  It draws a picture of a large section of literate hindu population who considered urdu their primary language, not because of political favours but because it was naturally their language.  We do not have any data taken by ‘pollsters’ to show that this was the case.  But we can make some speculative estimates by numbers of publications and the content of those publications.  I am unable to compile a scholarly accounting of such magazines and the numerous contributions of urdu writers.  Suffice it to present to you names of some daily, weekly or monthly publications, “sanaatan dharm pracharak”, “tej”, “aarya veer”, “veer India”, “arya Gazette”, “bande maataram”, “jain sansaar”, “sher-e hind”, “raajput Gazette” and even “agarwal hiteshi” that were published in urdu, some as late as the 1940s.  All had editors and contributors who were hindu (at least by name).

The compositions and publications of urdu ramayan cover roughly 1825-1980.  These poets also wrote secular/romantic Ghazal, nazm as well as other devotional pieces to krishn, lakshmi and many others.  The question needs to be asked, but remains unanswered because of lack of documentary evidence, whether these poets, steeped in urdu poetic culture, also recited parts of the ramayan in the mushaa’era that they participated in.  What was the composition of the audience?  They also composed bhajans in urdu.  Were these bhajans sung in religious gatherings.  We know that bhajans composed by syed ibrahim ras Khan (1548-1628) in braj bhaasha, proto-urdu, are sung to this day in prayer meetings.  There is every reason to believe that urdu compositions of ramayan were also recited, heard and enjoyed in public gatherings whether they may be called mushaa’era or not.

Well over twenty samples from urdu ramayan composed by different poets over nearly two centuries have been selected in story sequence and strung together like the beads of a tasbiih/jap-mala.  This study of the urdu ramayan shows the versatility, beauty and power of urdu, its ownership by a wide range of communities of India, and the easy and seamless acceptance, adoption and cross pollination of one another’s traditions by all faith systems.  Alas, somewhere along the way, we have lost this unique syncretic tradition.  It is my fervent hope that such studies will contribute a little to its revival.

بھرت کی تاج پوشی ۔ حکیم وئسرائے وہمی

کیکئی نے بھرت کو اپنے ماں باپ کے ہاں بھجوا دیا تھا ۔  اُن کو واپس بلایا گیا ۔۔۔

۱

پہنچ کر پیغامبر نے بھرت سے جا کر کہا

آپ کو آنے گُرُو نے ہے کہا جلدی وہاں

بھرت نے پیغام جب اپنے گُرُو کا یہ سنا

دِل میں کرکے یاد گنپت کی ہوئے فوراً رواں

جب سُنا کیکئی نے اپنے آ رہے فرزند ہیں

وہ نہایت ہوگئی مسرور و شاد و شادماں

۲

بھرت نے دیکھا کے گھر میں ہر کوئی مغموم ہے

جس طرح پالا پڑے بن میں کنول پر ناگہاں

بھرت نے پوچھا مری مائیں کہاں ہیں اور باپ

اور سیتا، پیارے بھائی رام لچھمن ہیں کہاں

۳

کیکئی نے اپنے بیٹے کی زباں سے جب سُنا

اپنی آنکھوں میں بناوٹ کے کئے آنسو رواں

اور جواب ایسا دیا جو تیر سا اُن کو لگا

اس طرح آغاز کر دی اُس نے اپنی داستاں

پیارے بیٹے کام سب میں نے بنائے خوب تھے

منتھرا نے بھی مدد کی میری بے وہم و گماں

قدرتاً کچھ کام تھوڑا سا بگڑ کر رہ گیا

ہو گئے ویکنٹھ کو مہراجہ دسرتھ جی رواں

۴

سانس لمبی لے کے اُس نے یوں کہا اے پاپنی

کر دیا برباد تو نے ہائے میرا خانداں

ایسی بدخو تو اگر تھی مجھکو زندہ کیوں رکھی

میں ہوا جس وقت پیدا کیوں نہ لے لی تو نے جاں

کاٹ کر تو پیڑ کو پتّے کو ہے جو سینچتی

فائدے کے بدلے تُو نے کر دیا میرا زیاں

 

بھرت رام کی ماں کوشلیہ سے ملے ۔۔۔

۵

کوئی پاپی مجھ سا دنیا میں نہ ہوگا دوسرا

جس کے باعث آپ ایسے ہو گئے ہیں خستہ جاں

زندگی پر میری لعنت ہے ملامت کیجئے

میں بنا سب کے لئے تکلیف دہ ایزا رساں

۶

پونچھ کر بیٹے کے آنسو یوں کہا پھر بھرت سے

صبر سے تم کام لو صدقے تمہاری تم پہ ماں

وقت کی دیکھو نزاکت، عقل سے کچھ کام لو

سوچ کر اعمال کو تم چھوڑ دو وہم و گماں

۷

میری ہی تقدیر اُلٹی ہے کسے اِلزام دوں

اِس قدر صدمے پہ بھی باقی ہے میرے تن میں جاں

وہ مقدر کے دھنی تھے اُن کا غم بے سود ہے

اُن کی منشا پر عمل کر کے بنو عزّت نشاں

باپ کے احکام کی تعمیل لازم ہے تمہیں

تم کو راجہ نے اودھ کا کر دیا ہے حکمراں

قول کی تکمیل میں جو رام کو بھجوا دیا

اور خود ملک عدم کی راہ لے لی بے گماں

 

بھرت کا بن کو جا کر رام کو واپس بلانے کا اِرادہ ۔۔۔

۸

جسم گر بیمار ہو تو عیش ہیں سارے فضول

خوب صورت جسم ہی کس کام کا، گر ہو نہ جاں

یوں ہی میرے واسطے ہے رام کا ہونا ضرور

ورنہ سب بیکار ہے یہ جاہ و سطوت عزّ و شاں

اِس لئے دیجے اِجازت جاؤں اُن کے پاس میں

ہے نہاں اس میں بھلائی اور مُضمر خوبیاں

 

لچھمن کو بھرت کے ارادے پر شک و شبہ ہے ۔۔۔

۹

تختِ شاہی مل گیا ہے آج اُن کو آپ کا

آپ کے بدلے ہوئے ہیں وہ اودھ کے حکمراں

دیکھ کر یہ آپ جنگل میں ہیں تنہا پھر رہے

اور جنگل میں ہیں سہتے پھر رہے دُشواریاں

ہیں دھرم کے راستے سے ہٹ کے وہ چل رہے

آ گئی ہے کچھ برائی اُن کے دل کے درمیاں

 

رام نے لچھمن کو سمجھایا اور بھرت سے ملے ۔۔۔

۱۰

دیکھ کر دونوں کا ملنا لوگ تھے حیرت زدہ

بلکہ شاعر کے لئے مشکل ہے لکھنا وہ سماں

ازدیادِ شوق سے دونوں تھے بھائی بیقرار

کچھ برائی کا نہ تھا دونوں طرف نام و نشاں

اس حقیقی پریم کا کوئی بیاں کیسے کرے

صرف الفاظوں سے کیوںکر شعر میں آئے سماں

 

رام کا واپسی سے اِنکار ۔۔۔

۱۱

باپ کے احکام کی تعمیل ہم دونوں کریں

فرض میرا اور تمہارا ہے یہی اے بھائی جاں

باپ کے، ماں کے، گُرُو کے اور آقاؤں کے حکم

جس نے مانے اپنے دل سے ہو گیا وہ کامراں

اس لئے اب فکر چھوڑو اور اب جا کر اودھ

سلطنت اپنی کرو چودہ برس با عِزّ و شاں

 

بھرت کے مزید اِسرار پر ۔۔۔

۱۲

آخرش اپنے کھڑاؤں بھرت جی کو دے دئے

لے کے جس کو سر پہ رکھا بھرت ہو کر شادماں

رام کے دونوں کھڑاؤں کیا تھے پہرہ دار تھے

یہ رعایا کی حفاظت کے لئے تھے نگہباں

رام اُٹھ کر بھائی سے اپنے گلے ملنے لگے

وہ سماں لِکّھا ہی جا سکتا نہ ہو سکتا بیاں

भरत की ताजपोशी – हकीम वाइसराए वहमी

कैकई ने भरत को अपने मां बाप के हां भिजवा दिया था – उन को वापस बुलाया गया …

पहुंच कर पैग़ाम्बर ने भरत से जा कर कहा

आप को आने गुरू ने है कहा जल्दी वहां

भरत ने पैग़ाम जब अपने गुरू का ये सुना

दिल में कर के याद गनपत की हुए फ़ौरन रवां

जब सुना कैकई ने अपने आ रहे फ़र्ज़ंद हैं

वो नहायत हो गई मस्रूर ओ शाद ओ शाद्मां

भरत ने देखा के घर में हर कोई मग़्मूम है

जिस तरह पाला पढे बन में कंवल पर नागहां

भरत ने पूछा मेरी माएं कहां हैं और बाप

और सीता, प्यारे भाई राम लछमन हैं कहां

कैकई ने अपने बेटे की ज़बां से जब सुना

अपनी आंखौं में बनावट के किये आंसू रवां

और जवाब ऐसा दिया जो तीर सा उन को लगा

इस तरह आग़ाज़ कर दी उस ने अपनी दास्तां

प्यारे बेटे काम सब मैं ने बनाए ख़ूब थे

मंथरा ने भी मदद की मेरी बे वहम ओ गुमां

क़ुद्रतन कुछ काम थोढा सा बिगढ कर रह गया

हो गये वैकुंठ को महाराजा दस्रथ जी रवां

सांस लम्बी ले के उस ने यूं कहा अए पापिनी

कर दिया बरबाद तू ने हाए मेरा ख़ांदां

ऐसी बद्ख़ू तू अगर थी मुझको ज़िंदा क्यूं रखी

मैं हुआ जिस वक़्त पैदा क्यूं न ले ली तू ने जां

काट कार तु पेढ को पत्ते को है जो सींचती

फ़ाएदे के बद्ले तू ने कर दिया मेरा ज़ियां

 

भरत राम की मां कौशल्या से मिले …

कोई पापी मुझ सा दुनिया में न होगा दूसरा

जिस के बा’अस आप ऐसे हो गये हैं ख़स्ता जां

ज़िंदगी पर मेरी ला’नत है मलामत कीजिये

मैं बना सब के लिये तक्लीफ़-दा ईज़ा-रसां

पोंछ कर बेटे के आंसू यूं कहा फिर भरत से

सब्र से तुम काम लो सद्क़े तुम्हारी तुम पे मां

वक़्त की देखो नज़ाकत, अक़्ल से कुछ काम लो

सोच कर आ’माल को तुम छोढ दो वहम ओ गुमां

मेरी हि तक़्दीर उल्टी है किसे इल्ज़ाम दूं

इस क़दर सद्मे पे भी बाक़ी है मेरे तन में जां

वो मुक़द्दर के धनी थे उन का ग़म बे-सूद है

उन की मंशा पर अमल कर के बनो इज़्ज़त निशां

बाप के अहकाम की ता’मील लाज़िम है तुम्हें

तुम को राजा ने अवध का दर दिया है हुक्मरां

क़ौल की तक्मील में जो राम को भिज्वा दिया

और ख़ुद मुल्क-ए अदम की राह ले ली बे-गुमां

 

भरत का बन को जाकर राम को वापस बुलाने का इरादा ….

जिस्म गर बीमार हो तो ऐश हैं सारे फ़ुज़ूल

ख़ूबसूरत जिस्म किस काम का, गर हो न जां

यूं हि मेरे वास्ते है राम का रहना ज़रूर

वरना सब बेकार है ये जाह ओ सित्वत इज़्ज़ ओ शां

इस लिए दीजे इजाज़त जाऊं उन के पास मैं

हैं नेहां इस में भलाई और मुज़्मिर ख़ूबियां

 

लछमन को भरत के इरादे पर शक ओ शुबह …

तख़्त-ए शाही मिल गया है आज उन को आप का

आप के बदले हुए हैं वो अवध के हुक्मरां

देख कर ये आप जंगल में हैं तन्हा फिर रहे

और जंगल में है सहते फिर रहे दुश्वारियां

हैं धरम के रास्ते से हट के वो चल रहे

आ गई है कुछ बुराई उन के दिल के दर्मियां

 

राम ने लछमन को समझाया और भरत से मिले …

१०

देख कर दोनो का मिलना लोग थे हैरत ज़दा

बल्के शाएर के लिये मुश्किल है लिखना वो समां

अज़्दियाद-ए शौक़ से दोनों थे भाई बेक़रार

कुछ बुराई का न था दोनों तरफ़ नाम ओ निशां

इस हक़ीक़ी प्रेम का कोई बयां कैसे करे

सिर्फ़ अल्फ़ाज़ौं से क्यूंकर शे’र में आए समां

 

राम का वापसी से इन्कार …

११

बाप के अहकाम का तामील हम दोनौं करें

फ़र्ज़ मेरा और तुमहारा है यही अए भाई जां

बाप के, मां के, गुरू के और आक़ाऔं के हुक्म

जिस ने माने अपने दिल से हो गया वो काम्रां

इस लिये अब फ़िक्र छोढो और अब जा कर अवध

सल्तनत अपनी करो चौदा बरस बा इज़्ज़ ओ शां

 

भरत के मज़ीद इस्रार पर …

१२

आख़रश अपने खढाऊं भरत जी को दे दिये

ले के जिस को सर पे रक्खा भरत हो कर शाद्मां

राम के दोनों खढाऊं क्या थे पहरे दार थे

ये रे’आया की हिफ़ाज़त के लिये थे निगहबां

राम उठ कर भाई से अपने गले मिलने लगे

वो समां लिक्खा हि जा सकता न हो सकता बयां

 

Click here for background and on any passage for word meanings and explanatory discussion. hakim rai vaa’esrai vahmi hyderabadi (1890-????) published his urdu re-composition of the ramayan in 1960. This is another one in classic, chaste urdu written as a long continuous composition of about 6000 ash’aar in the same qaafiya (yak-qaafiya), a monumental task, similar to dwarka prasad ufaq (see segment – ban baas). His father rai kripa shaNkar was also an urdu poet. Both were practicing unaani hakims. vahmi recomposed the ramayan at the specific request of his wife who had had a stroke and was bedridden. She herself was a sha’eera. By the time he completed his work she could no longer read, so he read it out to her. By the time the book was published, she had passed away.
1
pahuNch kar paiGhaambar1 ne bharat se jaa kar kaha
aap ko aane guru ne hai kaha jaldi vahaaN
bharat ne paiGhaam jab apne guru ka ye suna
dil meN kar ke yaad ganpath2 ki hue fauran3 ravaaN
jab suna kaikaii ne apne aa rahe farzand4 haiN
vo nehaayat5 ho gaii masroor6 o shaad7 o shaadmaaN8     
1.messenger 2.ganesh (it is traditional to pray to ganesh before undertaking any task) 3.immediately 4.son 5.very much 6.elated 7.happy 8.pleased
The messenger arrived and said to bharat that his guru had urgently summoned him back. When he heard this message of his guru, bharat immediately offered prayers to ganesh and departed. When kaikaii heart that her son had come she was very pleased, happy and elated.

2
bharat ne dekha ke ghar meN har koii maGhmoom1 hai
jis tarah paala2 paRe ban meN kaNval par naagahaaN3
bharat ne poochha meri maa’eN kahaaN haiN aur baap
aur sita, pyaare bhaai raam lachhman haiN kahaaN   
1.sorrowful 2.calamity 3.suddenly, unforeseen
bharat saw that everyone in the household was sorrowful, like the lotus folds up when a calamity falls on it suddenly. He asked where are my mothers and where is my father, where is sita and my dear brother raam and lakshman.

3
kaikaii ne apne beTe ki zabaaN se jab suna
apni aaNkhoN meN banaavaT1 ke kiya aaNsu ravaaN2
aur javaab aisa diya jo tiir sa un ko laga
is tarah aaGhaaz3 kar di us ne apni daastaaN4
pyaare beTe kaam sub maiN ne banaaye Khoob the
manthara5 ne thhi madad ki meri be-vahm-o-gumaaN6
qudratan7 kuchh kaam thoRa sa bigaR kar rah gaya
ho gaye vaikunTh8 ko maharaja dasrath ji ravaaN9   
1.made up, fake 2.flow 3.beginning 4.story 5.kaikaii’s maid who persuaded her to ask for bharat’s accession 6.without a doubt 7.naturally 8.heaven 9.depart
When kaikaii heard this from her son, fake tears began to flow from her eyes, but her answer pierced him like an arrow. She started her story saying, I had arranged everything very well and manthara had no doubt helped me. But nature intervened and things went awry. maharaja dasrath has departed for heaven.

4
saaNs lambi le ke us ne yuN kaha aye paapini1
kar diya barbaad tu ne haaye mera KhaandaaN
aisi bad-Khoo2 tu agar thi mujh ko zinda kyuN rakhi
maiN hua jis vaqt paida kyuN na le li meri jaaN
kaaT kar tuu peR ko, patte ko hai jo seeNchti3
faayede ke badle tu ne kar diya mera ziyaaN4   
1.sinner 2.bad nature/character 3.water, nurture 4.loss
Drawing a deep breath, he said, O, evil woman, you have destroyed my family. If you were of such a bad nature, why did you keep me alive. Why did you not kill me as soon as I was born. You have cut off the tree and are watering the leaf. Instead of doing good to me, you have caused a great loss.

5
koii paapi1 mujh sa duniya meN na hoga doosra
jis ke baa’as2 aap aise ho gaye haiN Khasta-jaaN3
zindagi par meri laa’nat4 hai malaamat5 kiijiye
maiN bana sub ke liye takleef-da6 eeza-rasaaN7    
1.sinner, unfortunate 2.because of 3.distraught 4.curse 5.blame 6.causing pain 7.delivering pain/sorrow
There is none in this world more unfortunate than me. It is because of me that you are so distraught. May my life be cursed, you can blame me all you want. I have caused pain and sorrow to everyone.

6
poNchh1 kar beTe ke aaNsu yuN kaha phir bharat se
sabr2 se tum kaam lo sadqe3 tumhaari tum pe maaN
vaqt ki dekho nazaakat4, aql se kuchh kaam lo
soch kar aa’maal5 ko tum chhoR do vahm6 o gumaaN7   
1.wipe 2.patience 3.an expression of love saying, I sacrifice myself to you 4.delicacy 5.tasks, duties 6.doubt 7.suspicion
Wiping her son’s tears she said to bharat, be patient, I offer my love to you. Consider this delicate situation and use your brains. Think of your duties and leave aside all doubts and suspicion.

7
meri hi taqdiir1 ulTi hai kise ilzaam2 duuN
is qadar3 sadme4 pe bhi baaqi5 hai mere tan meN jaaN
vo muqaddar6 ke dhani7 the un ka Gham be-sood8 hai
un ki mansha9 pe amal10 kar ke bano izzat-nishaaN11
baap ke ahkaam12 ki taa’meel13 laazim14 hai tumheN
tum ko raja ne avadh ka kar diya hai hukmraaN
qaul15 ki takmeel16 meN jo raam ko bhijva diya
aur Khud mulk-e-adam17 ki raah le li be-gumaaN18    
1.fate 2.blame 3.so much 4.shock 5.remains 6.fate 7.fortunate 8.useless 9.will, intention 10.perform 11.honourable example 12.orders 13.follow, obey 14.necessary 15.word, promise 16.complete, fulfill 17.country/world of eternity 18.without a doubt
How can I blame anyone, my fate itself is the problem. In spite of such a shock, I am still alive. He (dasrath) was very fortunate, it is no use mourning for him. Perform the tasks he set for you and achieve honour. It is necessary that you obey the orders of your father. He made you the ruler of avadh/ayodhya. In fulfilment of his promise, he sent raam to the jungle, and himself departed for eternal life.

8
jism gar biimaar ho to aish1 haiN saare fuzool2
Khoobsoorat jism kis kaam ka gar ho na jaaN
yuN hi mere vaaste3 hai raam ka rahna zaroor4
varna5 sub bekaar hai ye jaah6 o sitvat7, izz8 o shaaN
is liye deeje ijaazat9 jaauN un ke paas maiN
haiN nehaaN10 is meN bhalaaii aur muzmir11 KhoobiyaaN12    
1.comfort 2.uselss 3.for 4.necessary 5.otherwise 6.superiority, royalty 7.grandeur, pomp 8.honour 9.permission 10.hidden 11.latent 12.goodness
If the body is sick, nothing can comfort it. What use is a beautiful body if it does not have a soul. Just like that, it is necessary for me to have raam here. Otherwise, all this royal pomp, honour and grandeur are useless. Give me permission that I may go to him (raam). In this is hidden welfare and latent goodness.

9
taKht-e-shaahi1 mil gaya hai aaj un ko aap ka
aap ke badle hue haiN vo avadh ke hukmraaN
dekh kar ye aap jaNgal meN haiN tanha2 phir rahe
aur jaNgal meN haiN sahte3 phir rahe dushvaariyaaN4
haiN dharam ke raaste se haT ke vo chal rahe
aa gaii hai kuchh buraaii un ke dil ke darmiyaaN5    
1.royal throne 2.alone 3.bearing, undergoing 4.difficulties 5.middle, inside
He has usurped your royal throne. He is now the ruler of avadh in place of you. Seeing that you are alone bearing these difficulties in the jungle, he has deviated from the path of righteousness. There is some evil that has entered his heart.

10
dekh kar donoN ka milna log the hairat-zada1
balke2 shaa’er ke liye mushkil hai likhna vo samaaN3
azdiyaad4-e shauq5 se donoN the bhaaii beqaraar6
kuchh buraaii ka na tha donoN taraf naam o nishaaN
is haqiqi7 prem ka koii bayaaN8 kaise kare
sirf9 alfaazoN10 se kyuNkar11 sh’er meN aaye samaaN3   
1.amazed 2.in addition 3.scene 4.excess 5.love 6.restless 7.real, genuine 8.description 9.only 10.words 11.how
Seeing how the two brothers (raam and bharat) greeted each other, everyone was amazed. In addition, it is difficult for a poet to describe the scene. Both brothers were restless with excess of love. There was no trace of any ill-will on either side. How can anyone describe this genuine love. How can mere words of verse describe this scene.

11
baap ke ahkaam1 ki taa’meel2 hum donoN kareN
farz3 mera aur tumhaara hai yahi aye bhaaii jaaN
baap ke, maaN ke, guru ke aur aaqaaoN4 ke hukm
jis ne maane apne dil se ho gaya vo kaamraaN5
is liye ab fikr6 chhoRo aur ab jaa kar avadh
saltanat apni karo chaudah baras ba-izz7 o shaaN8   
1.orders 2.obey 3.duty 4.lords, rulers 5.victorious 6.worry 7.honour 8.glory
We should both obey our father’s orders. It is my duty and yours, my dear brother. Whoever, wholeheartedly accepts the orders/instructions of father, mother, teacher and rulers becomes victorious (in life). So, leave aside all worries and return to avadh. Conduct your reign for fourteen years with honour and glory.

12
aaKharash1 apne khaRaauN bharat ji ko de diye
le ke jis ko sar pe rakkha bharat ho kar shaadmaaN2
raam ke donoN khaRaauN kya the pahre-daar3 the
ye re’aaya4 ki hifaazat5 ke liye the nigahbaaN6
raam uTh kar bhaaii se apne gale milne lage
vo samaaN7 likkha hi jaa sakta na ho sakta bayaaN8   
1.at last 2.delighted 3.sentinels 4.subjects, people 5.protection 6.caretakers 7.scene 8.describe
At last raam gave his wooden sandals to bharat. He was delighted to get them and put them on his head (as a mark of respect). These sandals were sentinels. They were caretakers of the well being of his subjects. raam rose to embrace his brother. The beauty/love of this scene cannot be written or described.

hakim rai vaa’esrai vahmi hyderabadi (1890-????) published his urdu re-composition of the ramayan in 1960.  This is another one in classic, chaste urdu written as a long continuous composition of about 6000 ash’aar in the same qaafiya (yak-qaafiya), a monumental task, similar to dwarka prasad ufaq (see segment – ban baas).  His father rai kripa shaNkar was also an urdu poet.  Both were practicing unaani hakims.  vahmi recomposed the ramayan at the specific request of his wife who had had a stroke and was bedridden.  She herself was a sha’eera.  By the time he completed his work she could no longer read, so he read it out to her.  By the time the book was published, she had passed away.

kaikaii had sent bharat off to her parents’ house – he was summoned back …
1
pahuNch kar paiGhaambar1 ne bharat se jaa kar kaha
aap ko aane guru ne hai kaha jaldi vahaaN
bharat ne paiGhaam jab apne guru ka ye suna
dil meN kar ke yaad ganpath2 ki hue fauran3 ravaaN
jab suna kaikaii ne apne aa rahe farzand4 haiN
vo nehaayat5 ho gaii masroor6 o shaad7 o shaadmaaN8

1.messenger 2.ganesh (it is traditional to pray to ganesh before undertaking any task) 3.immediately 4.son 5.very much 6.elated 7.happy 8.pleased

The messenger arrived and said to bharat that his guru had urgently summoned him back.  When he heard this message of his guru, bharat immediately offered prayers to ganesh and departed.  When kaikaii heart that her son had come she was very pleased, happy and elated.
2
bharat ne dekha ke ghar meN har koii maGhmoom1 hai
jis tarah paala2 paRe ban meN kaNval par naagahaaN3
bharat ne poochha meri maa’eN kahaaN haiN aur baap
aur sita, pyaare bhaai raam lachhman haiN kahaaN

1.sorrowful 2.calamity 3.suddenly, unforeseen

bharat saw that everyone in the household was sorrowful, like the lotus folds up when a calamity falls on it suddenly.  He asked where are my mothers and where is my father, where is sita and my dear brother raam and lakshman.
3
kaikaii ne apne beTe ki zabaaN se jab suna
apni aaNkhoN meN banaavaT1 ke kiya aaNsu ravaaN2
aur javaab aisa diya jo tiir sa un ko laga
is tarah aaGhaaz3 kar di us ne apni daastaaN4
pyaare beTe kaam sub maiN ne banaaye Khoob the
manthara5 ne thhi madad ki meri be-vahm-o-gumaaN6
qudratan7 kuchh kaam thoRa sa bigaR kar rah gaya
ho gaye vaikunTh8 ko maharaja dasrath ji ravaaN9

1.made up, fake 2.flow 3.beginning 4.story 5.kaikaii’s maid who persuaded her to ask for bharat’s accession 6.without a doubt 7.naturally 8.heaven 9.depart

When kaikaii heard this from her son, fake tears began to flow from her eyes, but her answer pierced him like an arrow.  She started her story saying, I had arranged everything very well and manthara had no doubt helped me.  But nature intervened and things went awry.  maharaja dasrath has departed for heaven.
4
saaNs lambi le ke us ne yuN kaha aye paapini1
kar diya barbaad tu ne haaye mera KhaandaaN
aisi bad-Khoo2 tu agar thi mujh ko zinda kyuN rakhi
maiN hua jis vaqt paida kyuN na le li meri jaaN
kaaT kar tuu peR ko, patte ko hai jo seeNchti3
faayede ke badle tu ne kar diya mera ziyaaN4

1.sinner 2.bad nature/character 3.water, nurture 4.loss

Drawing a deep breath, he said, O, evil woman, you have destroyed my family.  If you were of such a bad nature, why did you keep me alive.  Why did you not kill me as soon as I was born.  You have cut off the tree and are watering the leaf.  Instead of doing good to me, you have caused a great loss.

bharat goes to meet kaushaliya, the mother of raam

5
koii paapi1 mujh sa duniya meN na hoga doosra
jis ke baa’as2 aap aise ho gaye haiN Khasta-jaaN3
zindagi par meri laa’nat4 hai malaamat5 kiijiye
maiN bana sub ke liye takleef-da6 eeza-rasaaN7

1.sinner, unfortunate 2.because of 3.distraught 4.curse 5.blame 6.causing pain 7.delivering pain/sorrow

There is none in this world more unfortunate than me.  It is because of me that you are so distraught.  May my life be cursed, you can blame me all you want.  I have caused pain and sorrow to everyone.
6
poNchh1 kar beTe ke aaNsu yuN kaha phir bharat se
sabr2 se tum kaam lo sadqe3 tumhaari tum pe maaN
vaqt ki dekho nazaakat4, aql se kuchh kaam lo
soch kar aa’maal5 ko tum chhoR do vahm6 o gumaaN7

1.wipe 2.patience 3.an expression of love saying, I sacrifice myself to you 4.delicacy 5.tasks, duties 6.doubt 7.suspicion

Wiping her son’s tears she said to bharat, be patient, I offer my love to you.  Consider this delicate situation and use your brains.  Think of your duties and leave aside all doubts and suspicion.
7
meri hi taqdiir1 ulTi hai kise ilzaam2 duuN
is qadar3 sadme4 pe bhi baaqi5 hai mere tan meN jaaN
vo muqaddar6 ke dhani7 the un ka Gham be-sood8 hai
un ki mansha9 pe amal10 kar ke bano izzat-nishaaN11
baap ke ahkaam12 ki taa’meel13 laazim14 hai tumheN
tum ko raja ne avadh ka kar diya hai hukmraaN
qaul15 ki takmeel16 meN jo raam ko bhijva diya
aur Khud mulk-e-adam17 ki raah le li be-gumaaN18

1.fate 2.blame 3.so much 4.shock 5.remains 6.fate 7.fortunate 8.useless 9.will, intention 10.perform 11.honourable example 12.orders 13.follow, obey 14.necessary 15.word, promise 16.complete, fulfill 17.country/world of eternity 18.without a doubt

How can I blame anyone, my fate itself is the problem.  In spite of such a shock, I am still alive.  He (dasrath) was very fortunate, it is no use mourning for him.  Perform the tasks he set for you and achieve honour.  It is necessary that you obey the orders of your father.  He made you the ruler of avadh/ayodhya.  In fulfilment of his promise, he sent raam to the jungle, and himself departed for eternal life.

bharat decides to go to the jungle and ask raam to come back …

8
jism gar biimaar ho to aish1 haiN saare fuzool2
Khoobsoorat jism kis kaam ka gar ho na jaaN
yuN hi mere vaaste3 hai raam ka rahna zaroor4
varna5 sub bekaar hai ye jaah6 o sitvat7, izz8 o shaaN
is liye deeje ijaazat9 jaauN un ke paas maiN
haiN nehaaN10 is meN bhalaaii aur muzmir11 KhoobiyaaN12

1.comfort 2.uselss 3.for 4.necessary 5.otherwise 6.superiority, royalty 7.grandeur, pomp 8.honour 9.permission 10.hidden 11.latent 12.goodness

If the body is sick, nothing can comfort it.  What use is a beautiful body if it does not have a soul.  Just like that, it is necessary for me to have raam here.  Otherwise, all this royal pomp, honour and grandeur are useless.  Give me permission that I may go to him (raam).  In this is hidden welfare and latent goodness.

lakshman is suspicious of bharat’s intentions …
9
taKht-e-shaahi1 mil gaya hai aaj un ko aap ka
aap ke badle hue haiN vo avadh ke hukmraaN
dekh kar ye aap jaNgal meN haiN tanha2 phir rahe
aur jaNgal meN haiN sahte3 phir rahe dushvaariyaaN4
haiN dharam ke raaste se haT ke vo chal rahe
aa gaii hai kuchh buraaii un ke dil ke darmiyaaN5

1.royal throne 2.alone 3.bearing, undergoing 4.difficulties 5.middle, inside

He has usurped your royal throne.  He is now the ruler of avadh in place of you.  Seeing that you are alone bearing these difficulties in the jungle, he has deviated from the path of righteousness.  There is some evil that has entered his heart.

raam calms lakshman down and receives bharat …
10
dekh kar donoN ka milna log the hairat-zada1
balke2 shaa’er ke liye mushkil hai likhna vo samaaN3
azdiyaad4-e shauq5 se donoN the bhaaii beqaraar6
kuchh buraaii ka na tha donoN taraf naam o nishaaN
is haqiqi7 prem ka koii bayaaN8 kaise kare
sirf9 alfaazoN10 se kyuNkar11 sh’er meN aaye samaaN3

1.amazed 2.in addition 3.scene 4.excess 5.love 6.restless 7.real, genuine 8.description 9.only 10.words 11.how

Seeing how the two brothers (raam and bharat) greeted each other, everyone was amazed.  In addition, it is difficult for a poet to describe the scene.  Both brothers were restless with excess of love.  There was no trace of any ill-will on either side.  How can anyone describe this genuine love.  How can mere words of verse describe this scene.

raam refuses to return ….
11
baap ke ahkaam1 ki taa’meel2 hum donoN kareN
farz3 mera aur tumhaara hai yahi aye bhaaii jaaN
baap ke, maaN ke, guru ke aur aaqaaoN4 ke hukm
jis ne maane apne dil se ho gaya vo kaamraaN5
is liye ab fikr6 chhoRo aur ab jaa kar avadh
saltanat apni karo chaudah baras ba-izz7 o shaaN8

1.orders 2.obey 3.duty 4.lords, rulers 5.victorious 6.worry 7.honour 8.glory

We should both obey our father’s orders.  It is my duty and yours, my dear brother.  Whoever, wholeheartedly accepts the orders/instructions of father, mother, teacher and rulers becomes victorious (in life).  So, leave aside all worries and return to avadh.  Conduct your reign for fourteen years with honour and glory.

On further insistence of bharat …
12
aaKharash1 apne khaRaauN bharat ji ko de diye
le ke jis ko sar pe rakkha bharat ho kar shaadmaaN2
raam ke donoN khaRaauN kya the pahre-daar3 the
ye re’aaya4 ki hifaazat5 ke liye the nigahbaaN6
raam uTh kar bhaaii se apne gale milne lage
vo samaaN7 likkha hi jaa sakta na ho sakta bayaaN8

1.at last 2.delighted 3.sentinels 4.subjects, people 5.protection 6.caretakers 7.scene 8.describe

At last raam gave his wooden sandals to bharat.  He was delighted to get them and put them on his head (as a mark of respect).  These sandals were sentinels.  They were caretakers of the well being of his subjects.  raam rose to embrace his brother.  The beauty/love of this scene cannot be written or described.

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