22-chitrakooT-jagat mohan lal ravaaN

For word meanings and explanatory discussion in English click on the “Roman” or “Notes” tab.  The “Introduction” tab offers a background of the whole series of posts that constitute a patchy reconstruction of the ramayan.

The ramayan has fascinated minds in India and worldwide for millennia, for the beauty of its literary composition, for its fascinating story content as well as for faith and reverence.  It is not surprising then that the Ramayan has been translated not only into all major languages, but also into unexpected ones like Polish, Norwegian and Swedish.  What is surprising is that there are more than twice as many poetic translations/trans-compositions of the ramayan in urdu as there are of the qur’aan and that the ramayan was translated into urdu even before the qur’aan was.

A book “urdu meN hindu dharm” (Hindu Religion in Urdu), Ajai Malviya,  written in Urdu, catalogues in detail urdu translations of the vedas (66), ramayan (103), mahabharat (38), bhagwad gita (83), puranas (44), manu smriti (4), biography of vashisht (14) and miscellaneous other religious compositions (472) spanning about 200 years of publications.

Why has this significant piece of literature been relegated to a neglected and ignored heap of disdain?  This needs to be corrected.  The sheer number and the high poetic and linguistic quality of this literature surprised me as I worked to string together representative parts of urdu nazm/poems of ramayan by different poets, like pearls strung in a necklace, into a near complete story.

A close reading of urdu ramayan translations offers some fascinating lessons about mingling of cultures in India, the origins and “ownership” of Urdu language, the power of the pen across languages and cultures and the universality of basic human emotions.  One is struck deeply by the acceptance and seamless adoption of multiple religious traditions as indicated by the observation that many ramayan renderings (even some by hindu poets) start with “bismillah ir-rahman ir-rahim” and a “hamd” (an ode and/or expression of gratitude to god).  Since god, like language, has no religion, these odes/hamd/vandana are entirely secular/universal. 

It is highly contentious to say that urdu is a muslim language (as if a language has religion) or even to say that urdu is a language of muslims.  There are large numbers of muslims (Bengal, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka) who do not know/speak urdu.  One of the important reasons that East Pakistan separated and declared baNgladesh was that it did not want urdu to be imposed on it in preference to its own language, beNgali.

Of the 100 or so translations/re-compositions of the ramayan in urdu more than 80 were written/composed by hindu writers/poets.  In most, if not all cases the poets were orthodox, believing, practicing hindus.  Why were they writing the ramayan in urdu?  I speculate that there must have been a large section of literate hindu population who considered Urdu their primary language, not because of political favours but because it was naturally their language.  Some of the poets who re-composed tulsidas’ ramcharitmanas suggest that because it was written in “bhaaka or bhaasha” and not easily available to everyone.  Therefore, they translated/re-composed it in urdu, perhaps implying that this is more comprehensible than “bhaaka/bhaasha”.  Apparently by the 1800s neither avadhi nor braj bhaasha were considered a common language.  To show the role urdu played in devotional traditions of north Indian hindus, I paraphrase from a book by bishweshwar parshad munavvar, himself a poet and son of dwaarka parshad ufaq (another poet of renown, who composed a full urdu ramayan).  He writes that, because of the effort of munshi jagannath Khushtar (1809-1864) and munshi shankar dayal farhat (1843-1904) in translating hindu religious texts into urdu, the teachings of the ramayan saved the hindu religion from further decline.  Before we run away with the image of an alien force coming down to “save” hinduism, it might be useful put this quote in perspective.  We have to make an effort to understand that what he might have meant is that there was a substantial community of hindus to whom religious texts were not comprehensible because they were written either in sanskrit or avadhi while their primary language of learning was urdu.  Thus, these translations made religious texts available to them.

Surely these poets, most of whom were believing and observant hindus must have had an audience/readership of similarly devout believers, who revered the composition itself and must have had the linguistic finesse to enjoy its literary excellence.  It draws a picture of a large section of literate hindu population who considered urdu their primary language, not because of political favours but because it was naturally their language.  We do not have any data taken by ‘pollsters’ to show that this was the case.  But we can make some speculative estimates by numbers of publications and the content of those publications.  I am unable to compile a scholarly accounting of such magazines and the numerous contributions of urdu writers.  Suffice it to present to you names of some daily, weekly or monthly publications, “sanaatan dharm pracharak”, “tej”, “aarya veer”, “veer India”, “arya Gazette”, “bande maataram”, “jain sansaar”, “sher-e hind”, “raajput Gazette” and even “agarwal hiteshi” that were published in urdu, some as late as the 1940s.  All had editors and contributors who were hindu (at least by name).

The compositions and publications of urdu ramayan cover roughly 1825-1980.  These poets also wrote secular/romantic Ghazal, nazm as well as other devotional pieces to krishn, lakshmi and many others.  The question needs to be asked, but remains unanswered because of lack of documentary evidence, whether these poets, steeped in urdu poetic culture, also recited parts of the ramayan in the mushaa’era that they participated in.  What was the composition of the audience?  They also composed bhajans in urdu.  Were these bhajans sung in religious gatherings.  We know that bhajans composed by syed ibrahim ras Khan (1548-1628) in braj bhaasha, proto-urdu, are sung to this day in prayer meetings.  There is every reason to believe that urdu compositions of ramayan were also recited, heard and enjoyed in public gatherings whether they may be called mushaa’era or not.

Well over twenty samples from urdu ramayan composed by different poets over nearly two centuries have been selected in story sequence and strung together like the beads of a tasbiih/jap-mala.  This study of the urdu ramayan shows the versatility, beauty and power of urdu, its ownership by a wide range of communities of India, and the easy and seamless acceptance, adoption and cross pollination of one another’s traditions by all faith systems.  Alas, somewhere along the way, we have lost this unique syncretic tradition.  It is my fervent hope that such studies will contribute a little to its revival.

 

چِترکُوٹ ۔ بھرت ملاپ ۔ جگت موہن لال رواںؔ

۱

آیا نظر جو دُور سے اُڑتا ہوا غبار

لچھمن کے دِل کو ہونے لگا سخت اِنتشار

کی عرض یوں حضورِ شہِ آسماں وقار

کچھ ہو رہے ہیں خطرہ کے آثار آشکار

تسکیں حصولِ تخت سے شائد ہوئی نہیں

یہ فوج ہے بھرت کی مرے دل کو ہے یقیں

۲

گرد و غبار دیکھ رہے ہیں حضور کچھ

نزدیک آ گئی، نہیں اب فوج دور کچھ

شک ہے مجھے کہ آج خطر ہے ضرور کچھ

نِیّت میں آ گیا ہے بھرت کے فتور کچھ

اِس کا سوائے جنگ کے انجام کچھ نہیں

اِس قافلہ کا ورنہ یہاں کام کچھ نہیں

۳

اُمّید دِل کی کوئی مری جان رہ نہ جائے

پھر اِنقلاب کا کوئی اِمکان رہ نہ جائے

مُشکل کوئی بھی ہونے سے آسان رہ نہ جائے

اچھا کیا بھرت کوئی ارمان رہ نہ جائے

یہ اسپ و فیل و تیغ و تبر فوج و اژدحام

ہم جوگیوں کے قتل کا اللہ رے اہتمام

۴

دشوار ہے یہ کام کچھ آساں مگر نہیں

شاید ہمارے زور کی اُن کو خبر نہیں

گو میرے پاس حرب کو تیغ و تبر نہیں

ہوں زیرِ سایہ آپ کے کچھ مجھ کو ڈر نہیں

گر حکمِ جنگ مجھ کو شہ ذوالکرام ہو

دم میں بھرت کی فوج کی تُرکی تمام ہو

۵

عبرت کی جا ہے اور ہے افسوس کا مقام

بھائی کو قتل کا ہے ہمارے خیال خام

کیسی بُری جگہ ہے یہ دنیا ہے جس کا نام

دِل میں بھرت کے ورنہ یہ سودائے انتقام

بھائی بھرت سا اور حسد کا شکار ہو

سب مال لے کے جانِ برادر پہ وار ہو

۶

لچھمن کے منھ سے سُن کے یہ الفاظِ زِشت و کیں

کانوں کا اپنے رام کو ہوتا نہ تھا یقیں

کچھ فکر مند ہو کے بہ اندازِ دِل نشیں

بولے غلط خیال ہے ایسے بھرت نہیں

اہلِ وفا ہیں مایۂ صد ناز ہیں بھرت

دنیا کے بھائیوں سے سرافراز ہیں بھرت

۷

جُگنو سے جیسے آگ کا جلنا محال ہے

اہلِ وفا کے قول کا ٹلنا مُحال ہے

مغرب سے آفتاب نکلنا محال ہے

لچھمن! یوں ہی بھرت کا بدلنا محال ہے

بھائی کہاں جہان میں ایسے وفا شِعار

یوں ہو کے بدگماں نہ بنو تم گناہ گار

۸

آئینہ ہے غبار سے خالی بھرت کا دل

ہے اک نظیرِ پاک خیالی بھرت کا دل

ہے ایک ظرفِ ہمّتِ عالی بھرت کا دل

بے شک ہے انتخابِ لآلی بھرت کا دل

جامِ جہاں نما ہے بھرت کا دلِ غیور

یہ بدگمانیاں ہیں تمہاری خِرد سے دور

۹

رام اور لچھمن میں تھی یہ گفتگو یہاں

تصویرِ اِضطراب و اَلم تھے بھرت وہاں

بولے بشسٹ مُن سے کہ اے نازشِ جہاں

عین و قدومِ رام کہاں اور میں کہاں

مل جائے خاکِ پا بھی پئے قشقۂ جبیں

مجھ کو امید اپنے مقدّر سے یہ نہیں

۱۰

یہ بات کہتے کہتے بھرت ہو گئے رواں

اُس سمت کو جدھر نظر آتا تھا کچھ دھواں

اِس اِضطراب سے جو نہیں قابلِ بیاں

دِل شرمسار طبع حزیں چشم خوں فشاں

سمجھے کہ بس فُرُود گہ رام ہے یہی

ختمِ مصائب و غم و آلام ہے یہی

۱۱

دیکھا تو ہے بھبھوت بدن پر لگی ہوئی

سو بار جس پہ صدقے ہو ملبوسِ قیصری

رونق فَزا ہیں داہنے پر لکشمنِ جری

اور بائین پر ہیں ہمدم و ہمراز جانکی

کرتا تھا کسب نور کو ارواحِ پاک سے

چمکا تھا اور رنگِ بدن رنگِ خاک سے

۱۲

یہ دیکھ کر بھرت کو ہوا اِس قدر ملال

چِلّا اُٹھے کہ جانِ برادر یہ کیا ہے حال

دیکھے وہ آ کے جو ہے طلب گارِ ملک و مال

اور ہو غریقِ لجّہ تحقیر و اِنفعال

اللہ ری حرص ذوقِ تمنّا کے واسطے

عقبیٰ پہ خاک ڈالی ہے دنیا کے واسطے

۱۳

رام اُٹھ کھڑے ہوے جو بھرت پر پڑی نظر

لپٹا لیا گلے سے برادر کو دوڑ کر

منظر وہ تھا فرشتے بھی حیراں تھے چرخ پر

نقشِ الم اِدھر یہ، وہ تصویرِ غم اُدھر

کلفت جو تھی دلوں میں وہ اشکوں سے دھو گئی

اتنے بھر آئے دِل کہ زباں بند ہو گئی

۱۴

خاموش تھوڑی دیر رہے یوں بھرت وہاں

مُہرِ سکوت لب پہ تھی اور چشم خوں فشاں

دِل مائلِ کلام تھا کھلتی نہ تھی زباں

آخر بِلک کے مطلبِ دِل یوں کیا عیاں

نالاں ہے خلق تختِ شہی دل فِگار ہے

چلئے حضور سارا اودھ بے قرار ہے

चित्रकूट – भरत मिलाप – जगत मोहन लाल रवां

आया नज़र जो दूर से उढता हुआ ग़ुबार

लछमन के दिल को होने लगा सख़्त इन्तेशार

की आर्ज़ यूं हुज़ूर-ए शह-ए आस्मां वक़ार

कुछ हो रहे हैं ख़तरे के आसार आश्कार

तस्कीं हुसूल-ए तख़्त से शायद हुई नहीं

ये फ़ौज है भरत कि मेरे दिल को है यक़ीं

गर्द ओ ग़ुबार देख रहे हैं हूज़ूर कुछ

नज़्दीक आ गई नहीं अब फ़ौज दूर कुछ

शक है मुझे के आज ख़तर है ज़रूर कुछ

निय्यत में आ गया है भरत के फ़ुतूर कुछ

इस का सिवाये जंग के अंजाम कुछ नहीं

इस क़ाफ़ले का वरना यहां काम कुछ नहीं

उम्मीद दिल कि कोई मेरी जान रह न जाये

फिर इन्क़लाब का कोई इम्कान रह न जाये

मुश्किल कोई भी होने से आसान रह न जाये

अचछा किया भरत कोई अर्मान रह न जाये

ये अस्प ओ फ़ील ओ तेग़ ओ तबर, फ़ौज ओ इज़्श्दहाम

हम जोगियौं के क़त्ल का अल्लाह रे एहतमाम

दुश्वार है ये काम, कुछ आसां मगर नहीं

शायद हमारे ज़ोर की उन को ख़बर नहीं

गो मेरे पास हर्ब को तेग़ ओ तबर नहीं

हूं ज़ेर-ए साया आप के कुछ मुझ को डर नहीं

गर हुक्म-ए जंग मुझ को शह-ए ज़ु’अल्कराम हो

दम में भरत कि फ़ौज की तुर्की तमाम हो

इब्रत कि जा है और है अफ़्सोस का मक़ाम

भाई को क़त्ल का है हमारे ख़याल ख़ाम

कैसी बुरी जगह है ये दुनिया है जिस का नाम

दिल में भरत के वरना ये सौदा-ए इन्तक़ाम

भाई भरत सा और हसद का शिकार हो

सब माल ले के जान-ए बरादर पे वार हो

लछमन के मुंह से सुन के ये अल्फ़ाज़-ए ज़िश्त ओ कीं

कानौं का अपने राम को होता न था यक़ीं

कुछ फ़िक्र-मंद हो के ब-अंदाज़-ए दिल-नशीं

बोले ग़लत ख़याल है ऐसे भरत नहीं

अहल-ए वफ़ा हैं माया-ए सद-नाज़ हैं भरत

दुनिया के भाईयौं से सर-अफ़्राज़ हैं बरत

जुग्नू से जैसे आग का जलना महाल है

अहल-ए वफ़ा के क़ौल का टलना महाल है

मग़्रिब से अफ़्ताब निकलना महाल है

लछमन! युं ही भरत का बदलना महाल है

भाई कहां जहान में ऐसे वफ़ा शे’आर

यूं हो के बदगुमां न बनो तुम गुनाहगार

आईना है ग़ुबार से ख़ाली भरत का दिल

है एक नज़ीर-ए पाक-ख़याली भरत का दिल

है एक ज़र्फ़-ए हिम्मत-ए आली भरत का दिल

बेशक है इन्तख़ाब-ए ल’आली भरत का दिल

जाम-ए जहां नुमा है भरत का दिल-ए ग़यूर

ये बदगुमानियां हैं तुम्हारी ख़िरद से दूर

राम और लछमन में थी ये गुफ़्तगू यहां

तस्वीर-ए इज़्तराब ओ अलम थे भरत वहां

बोले बशिस्ट मुन से के अए नाज़िश-ए जहां

ऐन ओ क़ुदूम-ए राम कहां और मैं कहां

मिल जाए ख़ाक-ए पा भि पय-ए क़श्क़ा-ए जबीं

मुझ को उमीद अपने मुक़द्दर से ये नहीं

१०

ये बात कहते कहते भरत हो गये रवां

उस सम्त को जिघर नज़र आता था कुछ धुआं

इस इज़्तराब से जो नहीं क़ाबिल-ए बयां

दिल शर्मसार, तब’अ हज़ीं, चश्म ख़ूं-फ़शां

समझे के बस फ़ुरूद-गह-ए राम है यही

ख़त्म-ए मसाएब ओ ग़म ओ आलाम है यही

११

देखा जो है भुभूत बदन पर लगी हुई

सौ बार जिस पे सद्क़े हो मल्बूस-ए क़ैसरी

रौनक़-फ़ज़ा हैं दाहने पर लक्शमन-ए जरी

और बायें पर हैं हमदम ओ हमराज़ जानकी

करता था कस्ब नूर जो अर्वाह-ए पाक से

चमका था और रंग-ए बदन रंग-ए ख़ाक से

१२

ये देख कर भरत को हुआ इस क़दर मलाल

चिल्ला उठे के जान-ए बरादर ये क्या है हाल

देखे वो आ के जो है तलबगार-ए मुल्क ओ माल

और हो ग़रीक़-ए लज्जा ओ तहक़ीर ओ इन्फ़े’आल

अल्लाह रि हिर्स ज़ौक़-ए तमन्ना के वास्ते

अक़्बा पे ख़ाक डाली है दुनिया के वास्ते

१३

राम उठ खढे हुए जो भरत पर पढी नज़र

लिप्टा लिया गले से बरादर को दौढ कर

मंज़र वो था फ़रिश्ते भी हैरां थे चर्ख़ पर

नक़्श-ए अलम इधर ये, वो तस्वीर-ए ग़म उधर

कुल्फ़त जो थी दिलौं में वो अश्कौं से धो गई

इतने भर आये दिल के ज़बां बंद हो गई

१४

ख़ामोश थोढी देर रहे यूं भरत वहां

मोहर-ए सुकूत लब पे थी और चश्म ख़ूं फ़शां

दिल मा’एल-ए कलाम था खुल्ती न थी ज़बां

आख़िर बिलक के मत्लब-ए दिल यूं किया अयां

नालां है ख़ल्क़ तख़्त-ए शही दिल फ़िगार है

चलिये हुज़ूर सारा अवध बेक़रार है

 

Click here for background and on any passage for word meanings and explanatory discussion. chaudhri jagat mohan lal ravaaN (1889-1934) was born and brought up in small town in unnaao district. His early education was in arabi and farsi at a local maktab under maulvi subhan KhaaN and his BA, MA and LLB at Canning College in lukhnow. He practiced law for a living but in spite of his sadly short life span was able to publish an admirable volume of Ghazal, musaddas, rubaaii and nazm – devotional, nationalist and secular. He very much wanted to composed a ‘masnavi’, a ballad/story as a tribute to gautam buddh, but died before he could complete it. This is one of his musaddas reflecting one of the stories of ramayan.
1
aaya nazar jo duur se uRta hua Ghubaar
lachhman ke dil ko hone laga saKht inteshaar1
kii arz2 yuN huzoor-e shah-e aasmaaN viqaar3
kuchh ho rahe haiN Khatre4 ke aasaar5 aashkaar6
taskiN7 husool8-e taKht se shaayed hui nahiN
ye fauj hai bharat ki, mere dil ko hai yaqiN   
1.restlessness 2.to speak respectfully 3.dignity 4.danger 5.signs, indications 6.apparent 7.consolation, satisfaction 8.acquisition
When they saw rising dust in the distance, lakshman became restless. Respectfully he said, O, king with dignity higher than the skies, some signs of danger are beginning to be apparent. Perhaps he was not satisfied with the acquisiting of the throne. I am sure that this is the army of bharat.

2
gard o Ghubaar dekh rahe haiN huzoor kuchh
nazdeek aa gaii, nahiN ab fauj duur kuchh
shak1 hai mujhe ke aaj Khatar2 hai zaroor kuchh
niyyat3 meN aa gaya hai bharat ke futoor4 kuchh
is ka sivaaye5 juNg ke anjaam6 kuchh nahiN
is qaafile7 ka varna8 yahaaN kaam kuchh nahiN    
1.doubt, suspicion 2.danger 3.intention 4.mischief, ill will 5.except for 6.result 7.caravan 8.otherwise
O, lord, do you see the rising dust. The army is nearby, it is not too far now. I suspect that there is some danger today. bharat’s intention seem to be mischievous. Except for war, this will not result in anything else. Otherwise, what was the need for this huge caravan here.

3
ummeed dil ki koii meri jaan rah na jaaye
phir inqelaab1 ka koii imkaan2 rah na jaaye
mushkil koi bhi hone se aasaan rah na jaaye
achchha kiya bharat koii armaan3 rah na jaaye
ye asp4 o fiil5 o teGh6 o tabar7, fauj o izshdehaam8
hum jogiyoN9 ke qatl ka allah re ehtemaam10    
1.change, reversal 2.possibility 3.desire 4.horse 5.elephant 6.sword 7.axe, hatchet 8.crowd 9.mendicants 10.arrangements, plans
So that no desire of his heart remains unfulfilled, so that there be no possibility left of reversal (of his accession to the throne), so that nothing becomes easy for us, bharat has done well to see that none of his wishes remains unattended. These horses, elephants, swords and hatchets, this army and this crowd, O, what arrangements have been made for killing these mendicants.

4
dushvaar1 hai ye kaam, kuchh aasaaN magar nahiN
shaayed hamaare zor ki un ko Khabar2 nahiN
go3 mere paas harb4 ko teGh5 o tabar6 nahiN
huN zer-e-saaya7 aap ke kuchh mujh ko Dar nahiN
gar hukm-e juNg mujh ko shah-e zu-alkaraam8 ho
dam9 meN bharat ki fauj ki turki10 tamaam ho    
1.difficult 2.knowledge 3.even though 4.strike, attack 5.sword 6.hatchet 7.under/in the shadow/protection 8.proportionate, well formed, strong, mighty 9.moment 10.an expression used to mean arrogance
He (bharat) might think that this is easy, but it is very difficult. Perhaps he is not aware of our strength/power. Even though I have no sword or hatchet to attack them, I am not afraid because I am in your protection. If you give me the permission to go to war, O, almighty king, the arrogance of bharat’s army will be finished in a moment.

5
ibrat1 ki jaa2 hai aur hai afsos3 ka maqaam4
bhaii ko qatl ka hai hamaare Khayaal Khaam5
kaisi buri jagah hai ye duniya hai jis ka naam
dil meN bharat ke varna6 ye sauda-e inteqaam7
bhaaii bharat sa aur hasad8 ka shikaar ho
sub maal le ke jaan-e baraadar pe vaar9 ho   
1.learning a moral lesson 2.place/occasion 3.sorrow 4.place/occasion 5.defective, evil 6.otherwise 7.vengeance 8.envy 9.blow
There is a moral lesson to be drawn from this, it is an occasion of sorrow. Our brother has an evil thought of killing us. How bad is this place that we call the world, otherwise why would bharat trade in vengeance? A brother like bharat and fall prey to envy! Having usurped all the wealth, he is now striking a blow at the life of his brother!

6
lachhman ke muNh se sun ke ye alfaaz1-e zisht2 o kiiN3
kaanoN ka apne raam ko hota na tha yaqiiN4
kuchh fikr-mand5 ho ke ba-andaaz6-e dil-nashiiN7
bole Ghalat Khayaal hai aise bharat nahiiN
ahl-e vafa8 haiN maaya9-e sad-naaz10 haiN bharat
duniya ke bhaaiiyoN se sar-afraaz11 haiN bharat    
1.words 2.ugly 3.antagonistic, angry 4.belief 5.worried 6.in the style of 7.heart-winning, loving 8.faithful 9.treasure 10.hundred/great pride 11.honourable
Hearing these ugly words of anger from lakshman’s lips, raam could not believe his ears. Worried, he said lovingly, you are mistaken, bharat is not like that. He is faithful and a treasure of which we can be greatly proud. Among all the brothers of the world, he is the most honourable.

7
jugnu se jaise aag ka jalna mahaal1 hai
ahl-e vafa2 ke qaul3 ka Talna4 mahaal hai
maGhrib5 se aaftaab6 nikalna mahaal hai
lachhman! yuN hi bharat ka badalna mahaal hai
bhaii kahaaN jahaan meN aise vafa-she’aar7
yuN ho ke badgumaaN8 na bano tum gunaahgaar9   
1.difficult, impossible 2.faith 3.word, commitment 4.lapse, fail 5.west 6.sun 7.faithful of character/nature 8.doubt, entertain bad thoughts 9.sinner
Just like the glowing of a lightning bug cannot start a fire, it is not possible for the word of the honourable to go unfulfilled. Just like it is impossible for the sun to rise in the west, O, lakshman, it is impossibel for bharat to change. Where can we find a brother of such a faithful nature. Do not commit the sin of doubting him.

8
aaiina hai Ghubaar se Khaali bharat ka dil
hai ek naziir1-e paak-Khayaali2 bharat ka dil
hai ek zarf3-e himmat-e-aali4 bharat ka dil
beshak5 hai inteKhaab6-e l’aali7 bharat ka dil
jaam8-e jahaaN-numa9 hai bharat ka dil-e Ghayoor10
ye badgumaaniyaaN11 haiN tumhaari Khirad12 se duur  
1.example, ideal 2.virtuous thinking 3.capacity, ability 4.great couragge 5.without a doubt 6.selection 7.pearls for a string/necklace 8.cup 9.mirror, clean 10.honourable 11.doubts 12.wisdom
bharat’s heart is like a mirror untainted by dust. It is exemplary of virtuous thinking. It has great capacity for courage. Surely, it is like a fine selection of the best pearls. bharat’s honourable heart is like a clean/clear cup. Your doubts are devoid of wisdom.

9
raam aur lachhman meN thi ye guftagu1 yahaaN
tasviir-e izteraab2 o alam3 the bharat vahaaN
bole bashisT-mun4 se ke aye naazish5-e jahaaN
ain6 o qudoom7-e raam kahaaN aur maiN kahaaN
mil jaaye Khaak-e-paa8 bhi pai9-e qashqa10-e jabiN11
mujh ko umeed apne muqaddar12 se ye nahiN    
1.conversation 2.restlessness 3.sorrow 4.muni/saint vashishT 5.pride 6.eyes 7.feet 8.dust under the feet 9.for the sake of 10.forehead mark 11.brow 12.fate
While raam and lakshman were talking here, over there, bharat was restless and worried. He said to his guru/teacher, muni vashisT – I am not worthy of anything compared to the person of raam. I cannot even hope for a fate that will give me the dust of his feet to mark my brow.

10
ye baat kahte kahte bharat ho gaye ravaaN1
us samt2 ko jidhar nazar aata tha kuchh dhuaaN
is izteraab3 se jo nahiN qaabil-e-bayaaN4
dil sharmsaar, tab’a5 haziN6, chashm7 KhooN-fashaaN8
samjhe ke bas furood-gah9-e raam hai yahi
Khatm-e masaa’eb10 o Gham o aalaam11 hai yahi   
1.depart, go 2.direction 3.restlessness 4.describable 5.nature, attitude 6.sorrowful 7.eyes 8.blood dripping 9.stopping place 10.difficulties 11.sorrows
Saying this bharat departed in the direction from which smoke was rising. His restlessness/impatience was such that it cannot be described. His heart full of shame, his attitude sorrowful, his eyes dripping tears of blood. He thought that this was the place where raam had stopped and now his problems and sorrows would end.

11
dekha jo hai bhubhoot1 badan par lagi hui
sau baar jis pe sadqe2 ho malboos-e-qaisari3
raunaq-faza4 haiN daahne par lakshman-e jari5
aur baayeN par haiN hamdam6 o hamraaz7 jaanki8
karta tha kasb9 noor jo arvaah-e-paak10 se
chamka tha aur raNg-e badan raNg-e Khaak se   
1.ceremonial ashes/dust rubbed on the body 2.offering, tribute 3.royal robes 4.light spreading, glowing 5.brave 6.intimate friend 7.confidante 8.another name of sita 9.obtain, acquire 10.virtuous souls, heavenly spirits
His (raam’s) body covered with ceremonial ashes to which even royal robes pay tribute. On the right, glowing with virtue was lakshman the brave. On the left, his life-partner and confidante, sita. His ash covered body glowed with celestial light, acquired from heavenly spirits.

12
ye dekh kar bharat ko hua is qadar malaal1
chilla uThe ke jaan-e baraadar ye kya hai haal
dekhe vo aa ke jo hai talabgaar2-e mulk o maal
aur ho Ghariiq3-e lajja4 o tahqiir5 o infe’aal6
allah ri hirs7 zauq-e-tamanna8 ke vaaste
aqba9 pe Khaak Daali hai duniya ke vaaste10    
1.sorrow, pain 2.seeker 3.drowned 4.shamed 5.dishonour, inferiority 6.regret 7.greed 8.taste/hunger for objective 9.result, reward in afterlife 10.for the sake of
Seeing this (ash covered body) bharat was pained so much that he shouted, O, dear brother, what have you done to yourselves. If one who seeks worldly good were to come and see this they would be drowned in shame, dishonour and regret that they have had such greed for their desires, that they have forsaken rewards in the afterlife for the sake of this world.

13
raam uTh khaRe hue jo bharat par paRi nazar
lipTa liya gale se baraadar ko dauR kar
manzar1 vo tha farishte bhi hairaaN2 the charKh3 par
naqsh-e-alam4 idhar ye, vo tasveer-e-Gham5 udhar
kulfat6 jo thi diloN meN vo ashkoN7 se dho gaii
itne bhar aaye dil ke zabaaN band ho gaii   
1.scene 2.amazed 3.skies, heavens 4.embodiment of pain 5.picture of sorrow 6.sorrow 7.tears
raam rose as soon as his glance fell on bharat and ran to embrace his brother. Looking at this scene, even angels in heaven were amazed. One brother an embodiment of pain the other a picture of sorrow. But the sadness of the hearts was washed away by tears of joy. Their hearts welled up so much they were tongue tied.

14
Khaamosh thoRi der rahe yuN bharat vahaaN
mohr-e-sukoot1 lab2 pe thi aur chashm3 KhooN-fashaaN4
dil maa’el-e-kalaam5 tha khulti na thi zabaaN
aaKhir bilak6 ke matlab-e-dil7 yuN kiya bayaaN8
naalaaN9 hai Khalq10 taKht-e shahi dil-figaar11 hai
chaliye huzoor saara avadh beqaraar12 hai   
1.stamp of silence 2.lips 3.eyes 4.dripping blood 5.inclined to speak 6.sobbing 7.intention/desire of the heart 8.describe 9.wailing 10.people 11.heart broken 12.impatient
bharat remained silent for a while, a stamp/seal of silence on his lips and eyes dripping with tears of blood. Even though the heart was inclined to speak, his tongue was tied. Finally, sobbing he spoke of his heart’s desire. All the people are wailing/crying, the royal throne is heart-broken. Come, your honour, all avadh is impatient.

chaudhri jagat mohan lal ravaaN (1889-1934) was born and brought up in small town in unnaao district.  His early education was in arabi and farsi at a local maktab under maulvi subhan KhaaN and his BA, MA and LLB at Canning College in lukhnow.  He practiced law for a living but in spite of his sadly short life span was able to publish an admirable volume of Ghazal, musaddas, rubaaii and nazm – devotional, nationalist and secular.  He very much wanted to composed a ‘masnavi’, a ballad/story as a tribute to gautam buddh, but died before he could complete it.  This is one of his musaddas reflecting one of the stories of ramayan.
1
aaya nazar jo duur se uRta hua Ghubaar
lachhman ke dil ko hone laga saKht inteshaar1
kii arz2 yuN huzoor-e shah-e aasmaaN viqaar3
kuchh ho rahe haiN Khatre4 ke aasaar5 aashkaar6
taskiN7 husool8-e taKht se shaayed hui nahiN
ye fauj hai bharat ki, mere dil ko hai yaqiN

1.restlessness 2.to speak respectfully 3.dignity 4.danger 5.signs, indications 6.apparent 7.consolation, satisfaction 8.acquisition

When they saw rising dust in the distance, lakshman became restless.  Respectfully he said, O, king with dignity higher than the skies, some signs of danger are beginning to be apparent.  Perhaps he was not satisfied with the acquisiting of the throne.  I am sure that this is the army of bharat.
2
gard o Ghubaar dekh rahe haiN huzoor kuchh
nazdeek aa gaii, nahiN ab fauj duur kuchh
shak1 hai mujhe ke aaj Khatar2 hai zaroor kuchh
niyyat3 meN aa gaya hai bharat ke futoor4 kuchh
is ka sivaaye5 juNg ke anjaam6 kuchh nahiN
is qaafile7 ka varna8 yahaaN kaam kuchh nahiN

1.doubt, suspicion 2.danger 3.intention 4.mischief, ill will 5.except for 6.result 7.caravan 8.otherwise

O, lord, do you see the rising dust.  The army is nearby, it is not too far now.  I suspect that there is some danger today.  bharat’s intention seem to be mischievous.  Except for war, this will not result in anything else.  Otherwise, what was the need for this huge caravan here.
3
ummeed dil ki koii meri jaan rah na jaaye
phir inqelaab1 ka koii imkaan2 rah na jaaye
mushkil koi bhi hone se aasaan rah na jaaye
achchha kiya bharat koii armaan3 rah na jaaye
ye asp4 o fiil5 o teGh6 o tabar7, fauj o izshdehaam8
hum jogiyoN9 ke qatl ka allah re ehtemaam10

1.change, reversal 2.possibility 3.desire 4.horse 5.elephant 6.sword 7.axe, hatchet 8.crowd 9.mendicants 10.arrangements, plans

So that no desire of his heart remains unfulfilled, so that there be no possibility left of reversal (of his accession to the throne), so that nothing becomes easy for us, bharat has done well to see that none of his wishes remains unattended.  These horses, elephants, swords and hatchets, this army and this crowd, O, what arrangements have been made for killing these mendicants.
4
dushvaar1 hai ye kaam, kuchh aasaaN magar nahiN
shaayed hamaare zor ki un ko Khabar2 nahiN
go3 mere paas harb4 ko teGh5 o tabar6 nahiN
huN zer-e-saaya7 aap ke kuchh mujh ko Dar nahiN
gar hukm-e juNg mujh ko shah-e zu-alkaraam8 ho
dam9 meN bharat ki fauj ki turki10 tamaam ho

1.difficult 2.knowledge 3.even though 4.strike, attack 5.sword 6.hatchet 7.under/in the shadow/protection 8.proportionate, well formed, strong, mighty 9.moment 10.an expression used to mean arrogance

He (bharat) might think that this is easy, but it is very difficult.  Perhaps he is not aware of our strength/power.  Even though I have no sword or hatchet to attack them, I am not afraid because I am in your protection.  If you give me the permission to go to war, O, almighty king, the arrogance of bharat’s army will be finished in a moment.
5
ibrat1 ki jaa2 hai aur hai afsos3 ka maqaam4
bhaii ko qatl ka hai hamaare Khayaal Khaam5
kaisi buri jagah hai ye duniya hai jis ka naam
dil meN bharat ke varna6 ye sauda-e inteqaam7
bhaaii bharat sa aur hasad8 ka shikaar ho
sub maal le ke jaan-e baraadar pe vaar9 ho

1.learning a moral lesson 2.place/occasion 3.sorrow 4.place/occasion 5.defective, evil 6.otherwise 7.vengeance 8.envy 9.blow

There is a moral lesson to be drawn from this, it is an occasion of sorrow.  Our brother has an evil thought of killing us.  How bad is this place that we call the world, otherwise why would bharat trade in vengeance?  A brother like bharat and fall prey to envy!  Having usurped all the wealth, he is now striking a blow at the life of his brother!
6
lachhman ke muNh se sun ke ye alfaaz1-e zisht2 o kiiN3
kaanoN ka apne raam ko hota na tha yaqiiN4
kuchh fikr-mand5 ho ke ba-andaaz6-e dil-nashiiN7
bole Ghalat Khayaal hai aise bharat nahiiN
ahl-e vafa8 haiN maaya9-e sad-naaz10 haiN bharat
duniya ke bhaaiiyoN se sar-afraaz11 haiN bharat

1.words 2.ugly 3.antagonistic, angry 4.belief 5.worried 6.in the style of 7.heart-winning, loving 8.faithful 9.treasure 10.hundred/great pride 11.honourable

Hearing these ugly words of anger from lakshman’s lips, raam could not believe his ears.  Worried, he said lovingly, you are mistaken, bharat is not like that.  He is faithful and a treasure of which we can be greatly proud.  Among all the brothers of the world, he is the most honourable.
7
jugnu se jaise aag ka jalna mahaal1 hai
ahl-e vafa2 ke qaul3 ka Talna4 mahaal hai
maGhrib5 se aaftaab6 nikalna mahaal hai
lachhman! yuN hi bharat ka badalna mahaal hai
bhaii kahaaN jahaan meN aise vafa-she’aar7
yuN ho ke badgumaaN8 na bano tum gunaahgaar9

1.difficult, impossible 2.faith 3.word, commitment 4.lapse, fail 5.west 6.sun 7.faithful of character/nature 8.doubt, entertain bad thoughts 9.sinner

Just like the glowing of a lightning bug cannot start a fire, it is not possible for the word of the honourable to go unfulfilled.  Just like it is impossible for the sun to rise in the west, O, lakshman, it is impossibel for bharat to change.  Where can we find a brother of such a faithful nature.  Do not commit the sin of doubting him.
8
aaiina hai Ghubaar se Khaali bharat ka dil
hai ek naziir1-e paak-Khayaali2 bharat ka dil
hai ek zarf3-e himmat-e-aali4 bharat ka dil
beshak5 hai inteKhaab6-e l’aali7 bharat ka dil
jaam8-e jahaaN-numa9 hai bharat ka dil-e Ghayoor10
ye badgumaaniyaaN11 haiN tumhaari Khirad12 se duur

1.example, ideal 2.virtuous thinking 3.capacity, ability 4.great couragge 5.without a doubt 6.selection 7.pearls for a string/necklace 8.cup 9.mirror, clean 10.honourable 11.doubts 12.wisdom

bharat’s heart is like a mirror untainted by dust.  It is exemplary of virtuous thinking.  It has great capacity for courage.  Surely, it is like a fine selection of the best pearls.  bharat’s honourable heart is like a clean/clear cup.  Your doubts are devoid of wisdom.
9
raam aur lachhman meN thi ye guftagu1 yahaaN
tasviir-e izteraab2 o alam3 the bharat vahaaN
bole bashisT-mun4 se ke aye naazish5-e jahaaN
ain6 o qudoom7-e raam kahaaN aur maiN kahaaN
mil jaaye Khaak-e-paa8 bhi pai9-e qashqa10-e jabiN11
mujh ko umeed apne muqaddar12 se ye nahiN

1.conversation 2.restlessness 3.sorrow 4.muni/saint vashishT 5.pride 6.eyes 7.feet 8.dust under the feet 9.for the sake of 10.forehead mark 11.brow 12.fate

While raam and lakshman were talking here, over there, bharat was restless and worried.  He said to his guru/teacher, muni vashisT – I am not worthy of anything compared to the person of raam.  I cannot even hope for a fate that will give me the dust of his feet to mark my brow.
10
ye baat kahte kahte bharat ho gaye ravaaN1
us samt2 ko jidhar nazar aata tha kuchh dhuaaN
is izteraab3 se jo nahiN qaabil-e-bayaaN4
dil sharmsaar, tab’a5 haziN6, chashm7 KhooN-fashaaN8
samjhe ke bas furood-gah9-e raam hai yahi
Khatm-e masaa’eb10 o Gham o aalaam11 hai yahi

1.depart, go 2.direction 3.restlessness 4.describable 5.nature, attitude 6.sorrowful 7.eyes 8.blood dripping 9.stopping place 10.difficulties 11.sorrows

Saying this bharat departed in the direction from which smoke was rising.  His restlessness/impatience was such that it cannot be described.  His heart full of shame, his attitude sorrowful, his eyes dripping tears of blood.  He thought that this was the place where raam had stopped and now his problems and sorrows would end.
11
dekha jo hai bhubhoot1 badan par lagi hui
sau baar jis pe sadqe2 ho malboos-e-qaisari3
raunaq-faza4 haiN daahne par lakshman-e jari5
aur baayeN par haiN hamdam6 o hamraaz7 jaanki8
karta tha kasb9 noor jo arvaah-e-paak10 se
chamka tha aur raNg-e badan raNg-e Khaak se

1.ceremonial ashes/dust rubbed on the body 2.offering, tribute 3.royal robes 4.light spreading, glowing 5.brave 6.intimate friend 7.confidante 8.another name of sita 9.obtain, acquire 10.virtuous souls, heavenly spirits

His (raam’s) body covered with ceremonial ashes to which even royal robes pay tribute.  On the right, glowing with virtue was lakshman the brave.  On the left, his life-partner and confidante, sita.  His ash covered body glowed with celestial light, acquired from heavenly spirits.
12
ye dekh kar bharat ko hua is qadar malaal1
chilla uThe ke jaan-e baraadar ye kya hai haal
dekhe vo aa ke jo hai talabgaar2-e mulk o maal
aur ho Ghariiq3-e lajja4 o tahqiir5 o infe’aal6
allah ri hirs7 zauq-e-tamanna8 ke vaaste
aqba9 pe Khaak Daali hai duniya ke vaaste10

1.sorrow, pain 2.seeker 3.drowned 4.shamed 5.dishonour, inferiority 6.regret 7.greed 8.taste/hunger for objective 9.result, reward in afterlife 10.for the sake of

Seeing this (ash covered body) bharat was pained so much that he shouted, O, dear brother, what have you done to yourselves.  If one who seeks worldly good were to come and see this they would be drowned in shame, dishonour and regret that they have had such greed for their desires, that they have forsaken rewards in the afterlife for the sake of this world.
13
raam uTh khaRe hue jo bharat par paRi nazar
lipTa liya gale se baraadar ko dauR kar
manzar1 vo tha farishte bhi hairaaN2 the charKh3 par
naqsh-e-alam4 idhar ye, vo tasveer-e-Gham5 udhar
kulfat6 jo thi diloN meN vo ashkoN7 se dho gaii
itne bhar aaye dil ke zabaaN band ho gaii

1.scene 2.amazed 3.skies, heavens 4.embodiment of pain 5.picture of sorrow 6.sorrow 7.tears

raam rose as soon as his glance fell on bharat and ran to embrace his brother.  Looking at this scene, even angels in heaven were amazed.  One brother an embodiment of pain the other a picture of sorrow.  But the sadness of the hearts was washed away by tears of joy.  Their hearts welled up so much they were tongue tied.
14
Khaamosh thoRi der rahe yuN bharat vahaaN
mohr-e-sukoot1 lab2 pe thi aur chashm3 KhooN-fashaaN4
dil maa’el-e-kalaam5 tha khulti na thi zabaaN
aaKhir bilak6 ke matlab-e-dil7 yuN kiya bayaaN8
naalaaN9 hai Khalq10 taKht-e shahi dil-figaar11 hai
chaliye huzoor saara avadh beqaraar12 hai

1.stamp of silence 2.lips 3.eyes 4.dripping blood 5.inclined to speak 6.sobbing 7.intention/desire of the heart 8.describe 9.wailing 10.people 11.heart broken 12.impatient

bharat remained silent for a while, a stamp/seal of silence on his lips and eyes dripping with tears of blood.  Even though the heart was inclined to speak, his tongue was tied.  Finally, sobbing he spoke of his heart’s desire.  All the people are wailing/crying, the royal throne is heart-broken.  Come, your honour, all avadh is impatient.

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