deen-e aadmiyat(2)-josh malihabadi

For word meanings and explanatory discussion in English click on the “English” or “Notes” tab.

دینِ آدمیّت  (۲) ۔ جوش ملیح آبادی

۱

نوجوانو ، یہ بڑے بوڑھے نہ مانیں گے کبھی
صحتِ افکار سے خالی ہے اِنکی زندگی
صبح کا جب نام آتا ہے تو سو جاتے ہیں یہ
روشنی کو دیکھتے ہی کوڑ ہو جاتے ہیں یہ

۲
اِن كے شانوں پر تو ایسے سَر ہیں ائے اہلِ نگاہ
جن کا گودا جل چکا ہے ، جن كے خانے ہیں سیاہ
اور وہ خانے ہیں جن تک روشنی جاتی نہیں
آندھیوں كے وقت بھی جن میں ہوا آتی نہیں

۳
بجھ چکے ہیں جہل كے جھونکوں سے اِن سب كے چراغ
کب سے ہیں ضیق النفس میں مُبتلا اِن كے دماغ
ان کی عقلِ پوچ اِک مدّت سے ہے خلوت گزیں
فکر کی ٹھنڈی ہوا میں سانس لے سکتی نہیں

۴
دیر سے عقلیں ہیں ان کی قبضِ مُزمِن سے دو چار
ذہن ہیں تقلید كے وجعِ مفاصل کا شکار
کانپتے ہیں یہ خدا و اہرمن كے سامنے
اب بھی جھکتے ہیں روایاتِ کہن كے سامنے

۵
یومِ  پیدائش  سے ہیں یہ اپنے سینوں میں لئے
کانپتے بوڑھے عقیدے تھر تھراتے وسوسے
معتقد ہیں اب بھی اُن ادیان كے یہ بکر و زید
دانت جن كے گر چکے ہیں، جن کی پلکیں ہیں سفید

۶
ذہن اِن كے رینگتے پھرتے ہیں زیرِ آسماں
اپنی بغلوں میں دبائے وہم کی بیساکھیاں
اِن سے بڑھ کر نور و حکمت کا کوئی دشمن نہیں
اِن كے تہ خانوں میں روشندان کیا، روزن نہیں

۷
کیوں نہ اُٹّھے عقل کے سینے سے رہ رہ کر دھواں
دین كے تابوت کی یہ زندہ  لاشیں، ال اماں
دین کیا ہے خوفِ  دوزخ ، حرصِ جنّت كے سوا
رسمِ تقویٰ کچھ نہیں جبن و تجارت كے سوا

۸
اللہ اللہ یہ مقدّس عالمانِ پُر شكوہ
تاجروں کی اک جماعت بزدلوں کا اک گروہ
سیکڑوں حوروں کا ہر نیکی پہ ہے اِن کو یقیں
سود لینے میں خدا سے بھی یہ شرماتے نہیں

۹
بند پانی سے اِنہیں کیا آ سکے بوئے فساد
یہ تو ہیں شخصی خدا كے بندگانِ خانہ زاد
ان کو اُس اصلی خدا سے دور کی نسبت نہیں
جسکے قبضے میں زماں ہے، جسکے قدموں پر زمیں

۱۰
آج تک پہنچی نہیں جس اوج تک چشمِ خیال
ایک نامعلوم قوّت، ایک نادیدہ جلال
شخصیت سے ہے نا آشنا جس كی جبیں
نوعِ انساں كے تعاوّن کی جسے حاجت نہیں

۱۱
جس کا ہر تارا ہےمصحف ، جس کا ہر ذرّہ کتاب
جس كے دفتر کی ہے زرّیں مہر، قُرصِ آفْتاب
وہ خدا ، وہ طاقتِ مخفی، وہ دارائے حیات
جس کی اک ادنیٰ سی جنبش کا لقب ہے کائنات

۱۲
اس کی کوئی اِبتدہ ہے اور نہ کوئی اِنتہا
لیکن اِن اربابِ مذہب کا نرالا ہے خدا

दीन-ए आदमियत (२) – जोश मलीहाबादी

नौजवानो, ये बड़े बूढ़े न मानेंगे कभी

सेहत-ए अफ़्कार से ख़ाली है इनकी ज़िन्दगी

सुबह का जब नाम आता है तो सो जाते हैं ये

रौशनी को देखते ही कूर हो जाते हैं ये

इन शानों पर तो ऐसे सर हैं ए हाल-ए निगाह

जिन का गोदा जल चूका है, जिन के ख़ाने हैं सियाह

और वो ख़ाने हैं जिन तक रौशनी जाती नहीं

आँधियों के वक़्त भी जिन में हवा आती नहीं

बुझ चुके हैं जहल के झोंकों से इन सब के चिराग़

कब से हैं ज़ैक़-उल-नफ़स में मुब्तला इन के चिराग़

इन की अक़्ल-ए पोच एक मुद्दत से है ख़िल्वत गज़िं

फ़िक्र की ठंडी हवा में सांस ले सकती नहीं

देर से अक़्लें हैं इन के क़ब्ज़-मज़मन से दो चार

ज़हन हैं तक़लीद के वजा’ मफ़ासिल का शिकार

कांपते हैं ये ख़ुदा ओ अहरमन के सामने

अब भि झुकते हैं रिवायात-ए कुहन के सामने

यौम-ए पैदाएश से हैं ये अपने सीनों में लिए

कांपते बूढ़े अक़ीदे थरथराते वसवसे

मोतक़द हैं अब उन अदियान के ये बक्र ओ ज़ैद

दांत जिन के गिर चुके हैं, जिन की पलकें हैं सफ़ैद

ज़हन इन के रेंगते फिरते हैं ज़ेर-ए आस्मां

अपनी बग़लों में दबाए वहम की बेसाखियां

इन से बढ़ कर नूर ओ हिकमत का कोई दुश्मन नहीं

इन के तह ख़ानों में रौशनदान क्या, रौज़न नहीं

क्यूं न उट्ठे अक़्ल के सीने से रह रह कर धुआं

दीन के ताबूत की ये ज़िन्दा लाशें, अल-अमां

दीन क्या है, ख़ौफ़-ए दोज़ख़, हिर्स-ए जन्नत के सिवा

रस्म-ए तक़्वा कुछ नहीं जबन ओ तिजारत के सिवा

अल्लाह अल्लाह ये मुक़द्दस आलिमान-ए पुर शिकोह

ताजेरों की एक जमा’अत, बुज़दिलों का एक गिरोह

सैकड़ों हूरों का हर नेकी पे है इन को यक़ी

सूद लेने में ख़ुदा से भी ये शरमाते नहीं

बन्द पानी से इन्हें क्या आ सके बू-ए फ़साद

ये तो हैं शख़्सी ख़ुदा के बन्दगान-ए ख़ाना-ज़ाद

इन को उस अस्ली ख़ुदा से दूर की निस्बत नहीं

जिस के क़ब्ज़े में ज़मां है, जिस के क़दमों पर ज़मीं

१०

आज तक पहुंची नहीं जिस औज तक चश्म-ए ख़्याल

ऐक ना-मालूम क़ुव्वत ऐक ना-दीदा जलाल

दाग़-ए शख़्सियत से है ना-आशना जिस की जबीं

नौ-ए इन्सानी के ता-अव्वुन की जिसे हाजित नहीं

११

जिस का हर तारा है मस-हफ़, जिस का हर ज़र्रा किताब

जिस के दफ़्तर की ज़र्रीं मोहर, क़ुर्स-ए आफ़्ताब

वो ख़ुदा, वो ताक़त-ए मख़फ़ी, वो दारा-ए हयात

जिस की एक अदना सी जुम्बिश का लक़ब है काएनात

१२

उस की कोई इब्तेदा है और न कोई इन्तेहा

लेकिन इन अरबाब-ए मज़हब का निराला है ख़ुदा

 

Click here for background and on any passage for word meanings and explanatory discussion. josh malihabadi (1898-1982) a fiery poet writing courageously about anti-colonialism and about communal harmony. He also rebels agains orthodox religiosity and manages to use the backdrop of karbala to construct a secular message about resistance to injustice and oppression. deen-e aadmiyat is a long nazm posted in four parts. In the first section josh raves and rants against orthodoxy and its attempt at dividing humanity into sects/religions. In section 2 he heaps contempt on “old men” with closed minds. In section 3 he distinguishes between a demanding selfish god (man masquerading as god) and the “real” god with a larger universal/humanist outlook. In a short concluding section josh calls for action – to create a “new way” of humanism.
1
naujavaano, ye baRe booRhe na maaneNge kabhi
sehat-e afkaar1 se Khaali hai inki zindagi
subah ka jab naam aata hai to so jaate haiN ye
raushni ko dekhte hi koor2 ho jaate haiN ye
.thought, philosophy 2.blind, dazed
O youth, these old seniors are never going to listen to you. Their lives are devoid of the strength of reason. Whenever Dawn (of knowledge) emerges, they go to sleep. They are dazed by the light (of knowledge).

2
in ke shaanauN par to aise sar haiN aye ahl1-e nigaah2
jin ka goda3 jal chuka hai, jin ke Khaane haiN siyaah4
aur vo Khaane haiN jin tak raushni jaati nahiN
aandhiyauN ke vaqt bhi jin meN hava aati nahiN

3
bujh chuke haiN jahl1 ke jhoNkauN se in sub ke chiraaGh
kab se haiN zaiq2-ul-nafas3 meN mubtala4 in ke dimaaGh
in ki aql-e pooch5 ek muddat6 se hai Khilwat7 gaziN8
fikr9 ki ThanDi hava meN saaNs le sakti nahiN
.ignorance 2.narrow, restricted 3.soul, mind 4.stricken with, suffering from 5.empty, hollow 6.long time 7.seclusion, closed 8.refugee 9.thought, reason
Gusts of winds of ignorance have put out their flame. Their minds are stricken with narrow mindedness. Their hollow minds long ago sought refuge in seclusion. They cannot breathe in the fresh air of Reason.

4
der se aqleN haiN in ki qabz1-e muzmin2 se do chaar
zahan haiN taqleed3 ke vaja’4 mafaasil6 ka shikaar
kaaNpte haiN ye Khuda o ahrman7 ke saamne
ab bhi jhukte haiN rivaayat8-e kuhan9 ke saamne
1.constipation 2.chronic 3.blind followership 4.arthritis 6.long time 7.spirit of evil, satan 8.traditions 9.ancient
For long their brains have been struck by chronic disease/constipation. Their minds are victims of the disease of unquestioning obedience. They tremble before good and evil alike and bow down to ancient traditions.

5
yaum1-e paidaaesh2 se haiN ye apne seenauN meN liye
kaaNpte booRhe aqeede3 thartharaate vasvase4
mo’taqad5 haiN ab bhi un adiyaan6 ke ye bakr-o-zaid7
daaNt jin ke gir chuke haiN, jin ki palkeN haiN safaid
.day of 2.birth 3.beliefs 4.supersititions 5.believers 6.plural of deen, beliefs 7.a phrase equivalant of Tom Dick and Harry
From the day of birth they carry in their bosom (hearts) age-old (trembling with age) beliefs and superstitions. These (Tom, Dick and Harry) people are believers in faiths that have lost all relevance (who have lost their teeth, whose eye-brows have gone gray with age).

6
zahn in ke reNgte phirte haiN zer1-e aasmaN
apni baGhlauN2 meN dabaaye vahm3 ki besaakhiyaN4
in se baRh kar noor5 o hikmat6 ka koii dushman nahiN
in ke tah-KhaanauN7 meN raushandan8 kya, rauzan9 nahiN 
.under 2.arm-pits 3.superstitions, illusions 4.crutches 5.light (of knowledge) 6.wisdom 7.underground basements (closed minds) 8.windows 9.peep holes
Their minds simply crawl under this sky. They are propped up by crutches of superstition under their arm-pits. There cannot be a greater enemy of the light of knowledge and wisdom. There are no windows, not even peep holes in their closed minds.

7
kyuN na uTThe aql ke seene se rah rah kar dhuaaN
deen ke taboot1 ki ye zinda laasheN, al-amaaN2
deen kya hai, Khauf3-e dozaKh4, hirs5-e jannat6 ke siva
rasm7-e taqva8 kuchh nahiN jabn9 o tijaarat10 ke siva
.coffin, casket 2.equivalent to “god help us” 3.fear of 4.hell 5.greed 6.heaven 7.rite, custom 8.piety 9.fear 10.trade, temptation
Why should smoke not rise from the burning bosom of Reason. God save us from these living corpses of the coffin of Faith. What is faith, except for fear of hell and greed for heaven. What is the observation of the rites of piety except for fear (of punishment) and temptation (of reward).

8
allah allah ye muqaddas1 aalimaan2-e pur-shikoh3
taajerauN4 ki ek jama’at5, buzdilauN6 ka ek giroh7
saikRauN hoorauN ka har neki pe hai in ko yaqiN
sood8 lene meN Khuda se bhi ye sharmaate nahiN
.holy 2.learned men 3.full of majesty 4.traders 5.association 6.cowards 7.group 8.profit, reward
O god, these holy men of learning puffed up with majestic bearing! They are merely an association of traders (in reward and punishment), a group of cowards. They are certain that every virtuous act will earn them a thousand hoories. They do not hesitate to extract profit from their dealings with god.

9
bund-paani1 se inheN kya aa sake boo-e fasaad2
ye to haiN shaKhsi Khuda ke bandagaan3-e Khaana-zaad4
in ko us asli Khuda se duur ki nisbat5 nahiN
jiske qabze6 meN zamaaN7 hai, jiske qadmauN8 par zamiN 
.stagnant water 2.stench of decadence/decay 3.servants of 4.children of the house – a term sometimes used to mean child of a concubine, illegitimate 5.association 6.control 7.Time 8.feet, toe
They live in stagnant water (closed minds), how can they smell the stench of decay. They are illegitimate servants of their personal (as opposed to universal) god. They don’t even have a remote association with the real (universal) god who has control of Time, with the earth under his toe.

10
aaj tak pahuNchi nahiN jis auj1 tak chashm2-e Khyaal3
ek na-maaloom4 quvvat5 ek na-deeda6 jalaal7
daaGh8-e shaKhsiyat9 se hai na-aashna10 jis ki jabiN11
nau-e insaaN12 ke ta’avvun13 ki jise haajit14 nahiN
.apex, height 2.eye of 3.thought, Reason 4.unknowable 5.power 6.cannot be seen 7.glory 8.stain of 9.personhood 10.not familiar 11.forehead, brow 12.human species 13.cooperation, help 14.need
(The real god is) at a height where even to this day Eye of Reason has not been able to reach. It is an unknowable power, a glory that cannot be seen. Its brow is unfamiliar with the stain of personhood. It does not need any help from the human species.

11

jis ka har taara hai mas-haf1, jis ka har zarra2 kitaab3
jis ke daftar4 ki hai zarriN5 mohr6, qurs7-e aaftab8
vo Khuda, vo taaqat-e maKhfi9, vo daara10-e hayaat11
jis ki ek adna12 si jumbish13 ka laqab hai kaayenaat  
.book, scripture 2.particle 3.book 4.office, administration 5.golden 6.seal, stamp 7.disc 8.sun 9.hidden power 10.lord of 11.life 12.lowly 13.movement
The poet’s god is not a god of reward and punishment but an unkowable/unseen power/spirit … every star and every particle is a book explaining his glory. The solar disc is a stamp/seal of his administration. It is a god who is a hidden power, the lord of life, even the slightest movement of whose finger causes the creation of the universe. This is a fairly conventional, even Islamic description of god. It seems like the poet is picking a fight with orthodoxy and its rituals and claims of superiority, not with the sufi concept of a universal spirit.

12
us ki koii ibtedaa1 hai aur na koii intehaa2
laikin in arbaab3-e mazhab4 ka niraala5 hai Khuda
.beginning 2.end 3.lords of 4.religion/faith 5.strange
He has no beginning nor end. But the god of these lords of faith is a strange being.

 

 

 

josh malihabadi (1898-1982) a fiery poet writing courageously about anti-colonialism and about communal harmony.  He also rebels agains orthodox religiosity and manages to use the backdrop of karbala to construct a secular message about resistance to injustice and oppression.  deen-e aadmiyat is a long nazm posted in four parts.  In the first section josh raves and rants against orthodoxy and its attempt at dividing humanity into sects/religions.  In section 2 he heaps contempt on “old men” with closed minds.  In section 3 he distinguishes between a demanding selfish god (man masquerading as god) and the “real” god with a larger universal/humanist outlook.  In a short concluding section josh calls for action – to create a “new way” of humanism.
1

naujavaano, ye baRe booRhe na maaneNge kabhi
sehat-e afkaar1 se Khaali hai inki zindagi
subah ka jab naam aata hai to so jaate haiN ye
raushni ko dekhte hi koor2 ho jaate haiN ye

1.thought, philosophy 2.blind, dazed

O youth, these old seniors are never going to listen to you.  Their lives are devoid of the strength of reason.  Whenever Dawn (of knowledge) emerges, they go to sleep.  They are dazed by the light (of knowledge).
2
in ke shaanauN par to aise sar haiN aye ahl1-e nigaah2
jin ka goda3 jal chuka hai, jin ke Khaane haiN siyaah4
aur vo Khaane haiN jin tak raushni jaati nahiN
aandhiyauN ke vaqt bhi jin meN hava aati nahiN

1.people of 2.sight, ability to see 3.pulp 4.black

O you people who have the ability to see, can you not see that on their shoulders they carry heads whose pulp has been burnt out, leaving an empty black box – a black box into which no light can reach, not even storms can cause any fresh wind to blow in them.
3
bujh chuke haiN jahl1 ke jhoNkauN se in sub ke chiraaGh
kab se haiN zaiq2-ul-nafas3 meN mubtala4 in ke dimaaGh
in ki aql-e pooch5 ek muddat6 se hai Khilwat7 gaziN8
fikr9 ki ThanDi hava meN saaNs le sakti nahiN

1.ignorance 2.narrow, restricted 3.soul, mind 4.stricken with, suffering from 5.empty, hollow 6.long time 7.seclusion, closed 8.refugee 9.thought, reason

Gusts of winds of ignorance have put out their flame.  Their minds are stricken with narrow mindedness.  Their hollow minds long ago sought refuge in seclusion.  They cannot breathe in the fresh air of Reason.
4
der se aqleN haiN in ki qabz1-e muzmin2 se do chaar
zahan haiN taqleed3 ke vaja’4 mafaasil6 ka shikaar
kaaNpte haiN ye Khuda o ahrman7 ke saamne
ab bhi jhukte haiN rivaayat8-e kuhan9 ke saamne

1.constipation 2.chronic 3.blind followership 4.arthritis 6.long time 7.spirit of evil, satan 8.traditions 9.ancient

For long their brains have been struck by chronic disease/constipation.  Their minds are victims of the disease of unquestioning obedience.  They tremble before good and evil alike and bow down to ancient traditions.
5
yaum1-e paidaaesh2 se haiN ye apne seenauN meN liye
kaaNpte booRhe aqeede3 thartharaate vasvase4
mo’taqad5 haiN ab bhi un adiyaan6 ke ye bakr-o-zaid7
daaNt jin ke gir chuke haiN, jin ki palkeN haiN safaid

1.day of 2.birth 3.beliefs 4.supersititions 5.believers 6.plural of deen, beliefs 7.a phrase equivalant of Tom Dick and Harry

From the day of birth they carry in their bosom (hearts) age-old (trembling with age) beliefs and superstitions.  These (Tom, Dick and Harry) people are believers in faiths that have lost all relevance (who have lost their teeth, whose eye-brows have gone gray with age).
6
zahn in ke reNgte phirte haiN zer1-e aasmaN
apni baGhlauN2 meN dabaaye vahm3 ki besaakhiyaN4
in se baRh kar noor5 o hikmat6 ka koii dushman nahiN
in ke tah-KhaanauN7 meN raushandan8 kya, rauzan9 nahiN

1.under 2.arm-pits 3.superstitions, illusions 4.crutches 5.light (of knowledge) 6.wisdom 7.underground basements (closed minds) 8.windows 9.peep holes

Their minds simply crawl under this sky.  They are propped up by crutches of superstition under their arm-pits.  There cannot be a greater enemy of the light of knowledge and wisdom.  There are no windows, not even peep holes in their closed minds.
7
kyuN na uTThe aql ke seene se rah rah kar dhuaaN
deen ke taboot1 ki ye zinda laasheN, al-amaaN2
deen kya hai, Khauf3-e dozaKh4, hirs5-e jannat6 ke siva
rasm7-e taqva8 kuchh nahiN jabn9 o tijaarat10 ke siva

1.coffin, casket 2.equivalent to “god help us” 3.fear of 4.hell 5.greed 6.heaven 7.rite, custom 8.piety 9.fear 10.trade, temptation

Why should smoke not rise from the burning bosom of Reason.  God save us from these living corpses of the coffin of Faith.  What is faith, except for fear of hell and greed for heaven.  What is the observation of the rites of piety except for fear (of punishment) and temptation (of reward).
8
allah allah ye muqaddas1 aalimaan2-e pur-shikoh3
taajerauN4 ki ek jama’at5, buzdilauN6 ka ek giroh7
saikRauN hoorauN ka har neki pe hai in ko yaqiN
sood8 lene meN Khuda se bhi ye sharmaate nahiN

1.holy 2.learned men 3.full of majesty 4.traders 5.association 6.cowards 7.group 8.profit, reward

O god, these holy men of learning puffed up with majestic bearing!  They are merely an association of traders (in reward and punishment), a group of cowards.  They are certain that every virtuous act will earn them a thousand hoories.  They do not hesitate to extract profit from their dealings with god.
9
bund-paani1 se inheN kya aa sake boo-e fasaad2
ye to haiN shaKhsi Khuda ke bandagaan3-e Khaana-zaad4
in ko us asli Khuda se duur ki nisbat5 nahiN
jiske qabze6 meN zamaaN7 hai, jiske qadmauN8 par zamiN

1.stagnant water 2.stench of decadence/decay 3.servants of 4.children of the house – a term sometimes used to mean child of a concubine, illegitimate 5.association 6.control 7.Time 8.feet, toe

They live in stagnant water (closed minds), how can they smell the stench of decay.  They are illegitimate servants of their personal (as opposed to universal) god.  They don’t even have a remote association with the real (universal) god who has control of Time, with the earth under his toe.
10
aaj tak pahuNchi nahiN jis auj1 tak chashm2-e Khyaal3
ek na-maaloom4 quvvat5 ek na-deeda6 jalaal7
daaGh8-e shaKhsiyat9 se hai na-aashna10 jis ki jabiN11
nau-e insaaN12 ke ta’avvun13 ki jise haajit14 nahiN

1.apex, height 2.eye of 3.thought, Reason 4.unknowable 5.power 6.cannot be seen 7.glory 8.stain of 9.personhood 10.not familiar 11.forehead, brow 12.human species 13.cooperation, help 14.need

(The real god is) at a height where even to this day Eye of Reason has not been able to reach.  It is an unknowable power, a glory that cannot be seen.  Its brow is unfamiliar with the stain of personhood.  It does not need any help from the human species.
11
jis ka har taara hai mas-haf1, jis ka har zarra2 kitaab3
jis ke daftar4 ki hai zarriN5 mohr6, qurs7-e aaftab8
vo Khuda, vo taaqat-e maKhfi9, vo daara10-e hayaat11
jis ki ek adna12 si jumbish13 ka laqab hai kaayenaat

1.book, scripture 2.particle 3.book 4.office, administration 5.golden 6.seal, stamp 7.disc 8.sun 9.hidden power 10.lord of 11.life 12.lowly 13.movement

The poet’s god is not a god of reward and punishment but an unkowable/unseen power/spirit … every star and every particle is a book explaining his glory.  The solar disc is a stamp/seal of his administration.  It is a god who is a hidden power, the lord of life, even the slightest movement of whose finger causes the creation of the universe.  This is a fairly conventional, even Islamic description of god.  It seems like the poet is picking a fight with orthodoxy and its rituals and claims of superiority, not with the sufi concept of a universal spirit.
12
us ki koii ibtedaa1 hai aur na koii intehaa2
laikin in arbaab3-e mazhab4 ka niraala5 hai Khuda

1.beginning 2.end 3.lords of 4.religion/faith 5.strange

He has no beginning nor end.  But the god of these lords of faith is a strange being.

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