mirza Ghalib-brij mohan kaifi

For word meanings and explanatory discussion in English click on the “English” or “Notes” tab.

مرزا غالب ۔ برج موہن دتّاتریا کیفی

۱

اِک وقت تھا کہ باغِ سخن تھا خزاں کی نذر

شعر اور ادب کا مُلک میں بازار سرد تھا

اُس وقت بھی تھے گر چہ ادیب اور نکتہ سنج

دُور اُن سے دردِ میرؔ تھا اور سوزِ دردؔ تھا

۲

پُر گوئی مصحفیؔ کی نہ سوداؔ کا وہ شِکُوہ

اِنشاؔ کی جِدّتوں کا بھی اب رنگ زرد تھا

ذوقؔ اور مومنؔ آتشؔ و ناسخؔ بھی تھے یہاں

اُن کا سمندِ خامہ بھی گو دُورِ گرد تھا

۳

اک شخصِ خاص کی تھی ادب کو مگر تلاش

اُس کو لحاظِ حال نہ ماضی کا درد تھا

مستقبل اُس کے سامنے تھا، تھی اُسی کی فکر

آئندہ ہی کی دھُن میں ادب رہ نورد تھا

۴

تھے جو عوارض آنے کو اُردو کے سامنے

نبٹے جو اُن سے کوئی بھی ایسا نہ فرد تھا

غالبؔ نے ایسے وقت میں پایا یہاں ظہور

جب دفترِ زبان و سخن فرد فرد تھا

۵

مُورِث تھا اُس کا کون، نہیں اِس سے کچھ غرض

افراسیاب شاہ تھا یا یزد جرد تھا

اِس دور میں ہے اِس پہ مگر سب کا اتفاق

میدانِ شعر کے لئے غالبؔ ہی مرد تھا

۶

ماضی سے کرنے کو تھا جو آئیندہ عہدِ جنگ

سر کردگی کو اُس کی وہ میرِ نبرد تھا

صنّاعی اُس نے کی ہے وہ تخیٔلِ شعر میں

طرزِ قدیم جس کے تقابُل میں گرد تھا

۷

وہ اِختراعِ طرز میں نثر اور نظم کے

بے شک وحیدِ عصر تھا، بے مثل و فرد تھا

اُسلوب خاص، طبع میں جدّت، قلم میں زور

تھا اُس کے سر میں جوش، بھرا دِل میں درد تھا

۸

تزئینِ نقش شعر ہوئی اُس کے کِلک سے

ہر مرکز اُس کا ایک خطِ لاجورد تھا

اُس کی شمیم سے ہے معطّر مشامِ روح

کیا سر سَبَد ریاضِ بلاغت کا درد تھا

۹

ہمنام تھا جو شیرِ خدا کا اِسی لئے

غالب ادب کے معرکے میں شیرِ مرد تھا

مغلوب کرتے کیا اُسے آلامِ دُنیوی

وہ دشت و راغ میں بھی خیاباں نورد تھا

۱۰

صوفی تھا اعتدال سے ہٹتا مزاج کیوں

یکساں اُسے زمانہ کا ہر گرم و سرد تھا

کیفیؔ اُسی کے مصرع کو تُو فاتحہ میں پڑھ

حق مغفرت کرے عجب آزاد مرد تھا

मिर्ज़ा ग़ालेब – पँडित ब्रिज मोहन दत्तात्रेया कैफ़ी

एक वक़्त था के बाग़-ए सुख़न था खिज़ाँ कि नज़्र

शे’र और अदब का मुल्क में बाज़ार सर्द था

उस वक़्त भी थे गरचे अदीब और नुक़ता-संज

दूर उन से दर्द-ए मीर था और सोज़-ए दर्द था

पुर-गोइ मस’हफ़ि कि ना सौदा का वो शिकोह

इंशा की जिद्दतों का भी अब रँग ज़र्द था

ज़ौक़ और मोमिन आतिश ओ नासिख़ भी थे यहाँ

उन का समंद-ए ख़ामा भी गो दूरी-ए गर्द था

एक शख़्स-ए ख़ास की थी अदब को मगर तलाश

उस को लहाज़-ए हाल ना माज़ी का दर्द था

मुस्तक़्बिल उस के सामने था, थी उसी की फ़िक्र

आइन्दा ही की धुन में अदब रह-नवर्द था

थे जो अवारेज़ आने को उर्दू के सामने

निब्टे जो उन से कोई भी ऐसा ना फ़र्द था

ग़ालेब ने ऐसे वक़्त में पाया यहाँ ज़हूर

जब दफ़्तर-ए ज़बान ओ सुख़न फर्द फर्द था

मूरिस था उस का कौन, नहीं इस से कुछ ग़रज़

अफ़्रासियाब शाह था या यज़्द जर्द था

इस दौर में है इस पे मगर सब का इत्तेफ़ाक़

मैदान-ए शे’र के लिए ग़ालेब ही मर्द था

माज़ी से करने को था जो आइन्दा अहद-ए जँग

सर-करदगी को उस की वो मीर-ए नबर्द था

सन-नाई उस ने की है वो तख़’ईल-ए शे’र में

तर्ज़-ए क़दीम जिस के तक़ाबुल में गर्द था

वो एख़्तेरा-ए तर्ज़ में नस्र और नज़्म के

बे शक वहीद-ए अस्र था, बे-मिस्ल ओ फ़र्द था

उस्लूब ख़ास, तब’अ में जिद्दत, क़लम में ज़ोर

था उस के सर में जोश, भरा दिल में दर्द था

तज़’ईन-ए नक़्श-ए शे’र हुई उस के किल्क से

हर मरकज़ उस का एक ख़त-ए लाजवर्द था

उस की शमीम से है मु’अत्तर मुशाम-ए रूह

क्या सर-सबद रियाज़-ए बलाग़त का दर्द था

हम-नाम था जो शेर-ए ख़ुदा का इसी लिए

ग़ालेब अदब के मारेके में शेर-ए मर्द था

मग़्लूब करते क्या उसे आलाम-ए दुन्यवी

वो दश्त ओ राग़ में भी ख़ियबाँ-नवर्द था

१०

सूफ़ी था ए’तेदाल से हट्ता मिज़ाज क्यूँ

यक्साँ उसे ज़माने का हर गर्म ओ सर्द था

कैफ़ी उसी के मिस्रे को तू फ़ातेहा में पढ़

हक़ मग़्फ़ेरत करे अजब आज़ाद मर्द था

 

Click here for background and on any passage for word meanings and explanatory discussion. panDit brij mohan dattatreya kaifi (1866-1955) was recognized as a scholar of arabi, faarsi, sanskrit and urdu. He was a great lover of urdu and wrote a short history of the evolution of the language. He wrote with much poignancy about communal harmony that existed before the souring of relationships. Here he is offering a tribute to mirza Ghalib.
1
ek vaqt tha ke baGh-e suKhan1 tha KhizaaN2 ki nazr3
she’r aur adab4 ka mulk meN baazaar sard tha
us vaqt bhi the garche5 adeeb6 aur nuqta-sanj7
duur un se dard8-e mir9 tha aur soz10-e dard11 tha
1.verse, poetry 2.fall, dry season, drought 3.sacrificial offering 4.literature 5.even though 6.writers 7.critics, those who understood fine points 8.pain, love 9.mir taqi mir (1722-1810) 10.fire, passion 11.Khwaja mir dard (1721-1785)
There was a time when the garden of verse became a sacrificial offering to drought. The bazaar of verse and literature had gone cold. Even though there were some writers and refined critics, the love of mir taqi mir and the passion of Khwaja mir dard was gone.

2
pur-goi1 mus’hafi2 ki na sauda3 ka vo shikoh4
insha5 ki jiddatoN6 ka bhi ab raNg zard7 tha
zauq8 aur momin9 aatish10 o naasiKh11 bhi the yahaaN
un ka samand12-e Khaama13 bhi go14 doori-e gard tha   
1.full (comprehensive) versification 2.Ghulam hamdani mus’hafi (1747-1824) 3.mohammed rafi sauda (1713-1780) 4.grandeur 5.insha-allah KhaaN insha (1753-1817) 6.innovations 7.pale 8.ibrahim zauq (1790-1854) 9.momin KhaaN momin (1800-1852) 10.haidar ali aatish (1778-1847) 11.imam baKhsh naasiKh (1772-1838) 12.stallion, horse 13.pen 14.as if
No longer the comprehensive versification of mus’hafi, nor the grandeur of sauda. The innovative style of insha was lost in pale memory. Even though zauq, momin, aatish and naasiKh were around it was as if the stallion that was their pen, had raced far ahead, leaving only dust behind.

3
ek shaKhs-e Khaas ki thi adab1 ko magar talaash
us ko lehaaz2-e haal3 na maazi4 ka dard tha
mustaqbil5 us ke saamne tha, thi usi ki fikr
aainda6 hi ki dhun meN adab rah-navard7 tha
1.literature 2.concern 3.present 4.past 5.future 6.next/future 7.wandering aimlessly
Literature (urdu) was looking for that special person. It (literature) was not concerned with the present or the past. It had the future staring it in the face, that is all it was worried about. Worrying about tomorrow, literature was wandering aimlessly.

4
the jo avaariz1 aane ko urdu ke saamne
nibTe2 jo un se koi bhi aisa na fard3 tha
Ghalib4 ne aise vaqt meN paaya yahaaN zahuur5
jab daftar6-e zabaan7 o suKhan8 fard-fard9 tha   
1.obstacles, difficulties 2.to engage, to deal with 3.individual, person 4.asadullah KhaaN Ghalib (1797-1869) 5.appearance 6.book 7.language 8.verse 9.unrelated, separate
There was none that could deal with the difficulties facing urdu. It was at such a time that Ghalib made his appearance, when versification was no longer tied to language/meaning. Probably what kaifi means is that versification was done more for its word structure and less for gravitas/meaning.

5
mooris1 tha us ka kaun, nahiN is se kuchh Gharaz2
afrasiaab3 shaah tha ya yazd3 jard3 tha
is daur4 meN hai is pe magar sab ka ittefaaq5
maidaan-e she’r ke liye Ghalib hi mard6 tha   
1.patron, benefactor 2.concern 3.ancient Persian kings 4.period, times 5.agreement 6.I choose to interpret this to mean courageous
At this time/during such a period, there was no concern about which king was patron/benefactor (there was more concern about the future). But everyone is in agreement that during this time, Ghalib was the only courageous one in the field of versification (to give shape to future traditions).

6
maazi1 se karne ko tha jo aainda2 ahad3-e juNg
sar-kardagi4 ko us ki vo miir5-e nabard6 tha
san-naai7 us ne ki hai vo taKh’eel8-e she’r meN
tarz-e-qadeem9 jis ke taqaabul10 meN gard tha   
1.past 2.future 3.determination, promise, agreement 4.leadership 5.commander 6.battle 7.craftsmanship 8.imagination 9.old way/tradition 10.comparison
Future (style) had determined to wage war against the Past (tradition). To lead this he (Ghalib) was the commander of the battle. With his craftsmanship he imagined such a style of she’r that the old tradition was like dust in comparison.

7
vo eKhtera1-e tarz2 meN nasr3 aur nazm ke
be-shak vaheed4-e asr5 tha, be-misl6 o fard7 tha
usloob8 Khaas, tab’a9 meN jiddat10, qalam meN zor
tha us ke sar meN josh, bhara dil meN dard tha   
1.innovation 2.style 3.prose 4.unique 5.times 6.unexampled, unmatched 7.individual, alone 8.manner, method 9.nature 10.innovation
In innovation of style of both prose and poetry, without a doubt, he was unique for his time, unexampled, standing all alone. His manner was special, innovative by nature and a powerful pen. His mind enthusiastic and much feeling in his heart.

8
taz’een1 naqsh2-e she’r hui us ke kilk3 se
har markaz4 us ka ek Khat5-e laajvard6 tha
us ki shameem7 se hai mu’attar9 mushaam-e-rooh10
kya sar-sabad11 riaaz12-e balaaGhat13 ka dard tha    
1.beautification 2.sketch, structure 3.pen 4.focus 5.line 6.azure blue 7.fragrant breeze 9.redolent 10.olefactory sensibility of the spirit 11.basket (for flowers) 12.garden 13.refined speech
His pen created the beauty of the structure of a couplet/she’r. The centrality/focus of each line was clear/azure/blue like the sky. The senses of the soul were redolent with the fragrant breeze of his verse. What a flower basket of the garden of refined speech.

9
hum-naam1 tha jo sher-e Khuda ka isi liye
Ghalib adab2 ke maareke3 meN sher-e mard4 tha
maGhloob5 karte kya use aalaam6-e dunyavi
vo dasht7 o raaGh8 meN bhi KhiyabaaN-navard9 tha
1.same name 2.literature 3.battle 4.brave 5.overpower 6.calamities 7.desert 8.forest 9.walking along garden paths
Ghalib’s name was asadullah KhaaN. ali was also know as asadullah (the lion of god) because of his courage in battle. Thus, because Ghalib had the same name as the lion of god, he was brave in the battle for literature. How could personal calamities have overpowered him, he walked along pleasant garden paths even through the desert and forest.

10
sufi tha, e’tedaal1 se haTta mizaaj2 kyuN
yaksaaN3 use zamaane ka har garm o sard tha
kaifi4 usi ke misre ko tu faateha5 meN paRh
haq6 maGhferat7 kare ajab8 aazaad9 mard tha   
1.balance, proportion 2.style, character 3.same 4.pen name of the poet 5.blessing, prayer 6.god 7.salvation, absolve 8.unusual 9.free spirit
He was a sufi, how could he have taken extremist positions. All the ‘hot’ and ‘cold’ of the world was the same to him i.e. he took everything with equanimity. O, kaifi, use his own misra to ask for a blessing for him, “may god absolve him of his sins, he was an unusual free spirit.

panDit brij mohan dattatreya kaifi (1866-1955) was recognized as a scholar of arabi, faarsi, sanskrit and urdu.  He was a great lover of urdu and wrote a short history of the evolution of the language.  He wrote with much poignancy about communal harmony that existed before the souring of relationships.  Here he is offering a tribute to mirza Ghalib.
1
ek vaqt tha ke baGh-e suKhan1 tha KhizaaN2 ki nazr3
she’r aur adab4 ka mulk meN baazaar sard tha
us vaqt bhi the garche5 adeeb6 aur nuqta-sanj7
duur un se dard8-e mir9 tha aur soz10-e dard11 tha

1.verse, poetry 2.fall, dry season, drought 3.sacrificial offering 4.literature 5.even though 6.writers 7.critics, those who understood fine points 8.pain, love 9.mir taqi mir (1722-1810) 10.fire, passion 11.Khwaja mir dard (1721-1785)

There was a time when the garden of verse became a sacrificial offering to drought.  The bazaar of verse and literature had gone cold.  Even though there were some writers and refined critics, the love of mir taqi mir and the passion of Khwaja mir dard was gone.
2
pur-goi1 mus’hafi2 ki na sauda3 ka vo shikoh4
insha5 ki jiddatoN6 ka bhi ab raNg zard7 tha
zauq8 aur momin9 aatish10 o naasiKh11 bhi the yahaaN
un ka samand12-e Khaama13 bhi go14 doori-e gard tha

1.full (comprehensive) versification 2.Ghulam hamdani mus’hafi (1747-1824) 3.mohammed rafi sauda (1713-1780) 4.grandeur 5.insha-allah KhaaN insha (1753-1817) 6.innovations 7.pale 8.ibrahim zauq (1790-1854) 9.momin KhaaN momin (1800-1852) 10.haidar ali aatish (1778-1847) 11.imam baKhsh naasiKh (1772-1838) 12.stallion, horse 13.pen 14.as if

No longer the comprehensive versification of mus’hafi, nor the grandeur of sauda.  The innovative style of insha was lost in pale memory.  Even though zauq, momin, aatish and naasiKh were around it was as if the stallion that was their pen, had raced far ahead, leaving only dust behind.
3
ek shaKhs-e Khaas ki thi adab1 ko magar talaash
us ko lehaaz2-e haal3 na maazi4 ka dard tha
mustaqbil5 us ke saamne tha, thi usi ki fikr
aainda6 hi ki dhun meN adab rah-navard7 tha

1.literature 2.concern 3.present 4.past 5.future 6.next/future 7.wandering aimlessly

Literature (urdu) was looking for that special person.  It (literature) was not concerned with the present or the past.  It had the future staring it in the face, that is all it was worried about.  Worrying about tomorrow, literature was wandering aimlessly.
4
the jo avaariz1 aane ko urdu ke saamne
nibTe2 jo un se koi bhi aisa na fard3 tha
Ghalib4 ne aise vaqt meN paaya yahaaN zahuur5
jab daftar6-e zabaan7 o suKhan8 fard-fard9 tha

1.obstacles, difficulties 2.to engage, to deal with 3.individual, person 4.asadullah KhaaN Ghalib (1797-1869) 5.appearance 6.book 7.language 8.verse 9.unrelated, separate

There was none that could deal with the difficulties facing urdu.  It was at such a time that Ghalib made his appearance, when versification was no longer tied to language/meaning.  Probably what kaifi means is that versification was done more for its word structure and less for gravitas/meaning.
5
mooris1 tha us ka kaun, nahiN is se kuchh Gharaz2
afrasiaab3 shaah tha ya yazd3 jard3 tha
is daur4 meN hai is pe magar sab ka ittefaaq5
maidaan-e she’r ke liye Ghalib hi mard6 tha

1.patron, benefactor 2.concern 3.ancient Persian kings 4.period, times 5.agreement 6.I choose to interpret this to mean courageous

At this time/during such a period, there was no concern about which king was patron/benefactor (there was more concern about the future).  But everyone is in agreement that during this time, Ghalib was the only courageous one in the field of versification (to give shape to future traditions).
6
maazi1 se karne ko tha jo aainda2 ahad3-e juNg
sar-kardagi4 ko us ki vo miir5-e nabard6 tha
san-naai7 us ne ki hai vo taKh’eel8-e she’r meN
tarz-e-qadeem9 jis ke taqaabul10 meN gard tha

1.past 2.future 3.determination, promise, agreement 4.leadership 5.commander 6.battle 7.craftsmanship 8.imagination 9.old way/tradition 10.comparison

Future (style) had determined to wage war against the Past (tradition).  To lead this he (Ghalib) was the commander of the battle.  With his craftsmanship he imagined such a style of she’r that the old tradition was like dust in comparison.
7
vo eKhtera1-e tarz2 meN nasr3 aur nazm ke
be-shak vaheed4-e asr5 tha, be-misl6 o fard7 tha
usloob8 Khaas, tab’a9 meN jiddat10, qalam meN zor
tha us ke sar meN josh, bhara dil meN dard tha

1.innovation 2.style 3.prose 4.unique 5.times 6.unexampled, unmatched 7.individual, alone 8.manner, method 9.nature 10.innovation

In innovation of style of both prose and poetry, without a doubt, he was unique for his time, unexampled, standing all alone.  His manner was special, innovative by nature and a powerful pen.  His mind enthusiastic and much feeling in his heart.
8
taz’een1 naqsh2-e she’r hui us ke kilk3 se
har markaz4 us ka ek Khat5-e laajvard6 tha
us ki shameem7 se hai mu’attar9 mushaam-e-rooh10
kya sar-sabad11 riaaz12-e balaaGhat13 ka dard tha

1.beautification 2.sketch, structure 3.pen 4.focus 5.line 6.azure blue 7.fragrant breeze 9.redolent 10.olefactory sensibility of the spirit 11.basket (for flowers) 12.garden 13.refined speech

His pen created the beauty of the structure of a couplet/she’r.  The centrality/focus of each line was clear/azure/blue like the sky.  The senses of the soul were redolent with the fragrant breeze of his verse.  What a flower basket of the garden of refined speech.
9
hum-naam1 tha jo sher-e Khuda ka isi liye
Ghalib adab2 ke maareke3 meN sher-e mard4 tha
maGhloob5 karte kya use aalaam6-e dunyavi
vo dasht7 o raaGh8 meN bhi KhiyabaaN-navard9 tha

1.same name 2.literature 3.battle 4.brave 5.overpower 6.calamities 7.desert 8.forest 9.walking along garden paths

Ghalib’s name was asadullah KhaaN.  ali was also know as asadullah (the lion of god) because of his courage in battle.  Thus, because Ghalib had the same name as the lion of god, he was brave in the battle for literature.  How could personal calamities have overpowered him, he walked along pleasant garden paths even through the desert and forest.
10
sufi tha, e’tedaal1 se haTta mizaaj2 kyuN
yaksaaN3 use zamaane ka har garm o sard tha
kaifi4 usi ke misre ko tu faateha5 meN paRh
haq6 maGhferat7 kare ajab8 aazaad9 mard tha

1.balance, proportion 2.style, character 3.same 4.pen name of the poet 5.blessing, prayer 6.god 7.salvation, absolve 8.unusual 9.free spirit

He was a sufi, how could he have taken extremist positions.  All the ‘hot’ and ‘cold’ of the world was the same to him i.e. he took everything with equanimity.  O, kaifi, use his own misra to ask for a blessing for him, “may god absolve him of his sins, he was an unusual free spirit.

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