naya shivala 1905 – iqbal

‘naya shivala’ was first published in March 1905, in a Lahore magazine called “maKhzan” and also in December 1913 in a Hyderabadi magazine called “shahed-e suKhan”.   During this phase iqbal wrote of universal love with sufi, vedantic and nationalist overtones. iqbal had deep familial/ancestral roots in Kashmiri Saivite Brahminism and has written about it with pride.  The title of this nazm, his translation of gaytri mantr, his ode to swami ramtirth, the description of his encounter with shiva during his imaginary celestial travels, ‘javed naama’ and his many nationalist nazms are all indications of these tendencies. This early phase is in sharp contrast to his later reactionary phase of pan-Islamism and strident religiosity during which he wrote “shikwa”.

 

It is interesting that in ‘naya shivala’, iqbal identifies religion as the source of evil, caste system and “juNg o jadal”. He identifies the sense of superiority and exclusiveness in religion as the source of discrimination in the caste system of Hinduism and aggressiveness in Islam. iqbal seems to be willing to accept nationalism-patriotism as a force equivalent to “faith” and in fact is declaring his preference for it.

By the time, in 1924, he compiled his early works and published “baaNg-e dara” he was well into his reacationary phase and was also keenly aware of the heavy criticism he had received for ‘naya shivala’ and other similar works.  He edited the 1905 version of ‘naya shivala’ heavily, taking out a lot of the verses with very explicit Hindu imagery.  The edited version is posted as ‘naya shivala 1924’.

نیا  شوالہ –(۱۹۰۵)  محمد  اقبال

 

سچ کہہ دوں ائے برہمن گر تو برا نہ مانے

تیرے سنم کدوں کے بُت ہو گئے پرانے

اپنوں سے بیر رکھنا تو نے بتوں سے سیکھا

جنگ و جدل سکھایا واعظ کو بھی خدا نے

 

کچھ فکر پھوٹ کی کر، مالی ہے تو چمن کا

بوٹوں کو پھونک ڈالا اِس بِس بھری ہوا نے

تنگ آکے میں نے آخر دیر و حرم کو چھوڑا

واعظ کا وعظ  چھوڑا چھوڑے تیرے فسانے

 

پتھر کی مورتوں میں سمجھا ہے تو خدا ہے

خاکِ وطن کا مجھکو ہر ذرّہ دیوتا ہے

 

آ غیریت کے پردے اک بار پھر اُٹھا دیں

بچھڑوں کو پھر ملا دیں، نقشِ دوئی مٹا دیں

سونی پڑی ہوی ہے، مدّت سے دِل کی بستی

آ اِک نیا شوالہ اِس دیس میں بنا دیں

 

دُنیا کے تیرتھوں سےاوُنچا ہو اپنا تیرتھ

دامانِ آسماں سے اُس کا کلس مِلا دیں

پھر اِک انوپ ایسی سونے کی مورتی ہو

اِس ہردوارِ دِل میں لا کر جسے بٹھا دیں

 

سُندر ہو اُس کی صورت، چھب اُس کی موہنی ہو

اُس دیوتا سے مانگیں جو دِل کی ہوں مُرادیں

زُنّار ہو گلے میں، تسبیح ہاتھ میں ہو

یعنی صنم کدے میں شانِ حرم دِکھا دیں

 

پہلو کو چیر ڈالیں درشن ہو عام اُس کا

ہر آتما کو گویا اِک آگ سی لگا دیں

آنکھوں کی ہے جو گنگا لے لے کے اُس سے پانی

اِس دیوتا کے آگے اِک نہر سی بہا دیں

 

ہندوستان لکھ دیں، ماتھے پہ اُس صنم کے

بھولے ہوئے ترانے دُنیا کو پھر سُنا دیں

ہر صبح اُٹھ کے گائیں منتر وہ میٹھے میٹھے

سارے پجاریوں کو مئے  پیت کی پلا دیں

 

مندر میں ہو بُلانا جس دم پجاریوں کو

آوازۂ اذاں کو ناقوُس میں چھپا دیں

اگنی ہے وہ جو نِرگُن، کہتے ہیں  پیت جس کو

دھرموں کے یہ بکھیڑے اِس آگ میں جلا دیں

 

ہے ریت عاشقوں کی تن من نثار کرنا

رونا ستم اُٹھانا اور اُن کو پیار کرنا

شکتی بھی شانتی بھی بھگتوں کے گیت میں ہے

دھرتی کے باسیوں کی مکتی پریت میں ہے

नया शिवाला (१९०५) – मोहम्मद इक़्बाल

 

सच कह दूँ अए बरहमन गर तू बुरा न माने

तेरे सनम कदौं के बुत हो गए पुराने

अपनौं से बैर रखना तू ने बुतौं से सीखा

जंग ओ जदल सिखाया वाएज़ को भी ख़ुदा ने

 

कुछ फ़िक्र फूट कि कर, माली है तू चमन का

बूटौं को फूँक डाला इस बिस भरी हवा ने

तंग आ के मैं मे आख़िर दैर ओ हरम को छोड़ा

वाएज़ का वा’अज़ छोड़ा छोड़े तेरे फ़साने

 

पत्थर कि मूरतौं में समझा है तू ख़ुदा है

ख़ाक-ए वतन का मुझ को हर ज़र्रा देवता है

 

आ ग़ैरियत के परदे एक बार फिर उठा दें

बिछड़ौं को फिर मिला दें, नक़्श-ए दुई मिटा दें

सूनी पड़ी हुई है, मुद्दत से दिल कि बस्ती

आ एक नया शिवाला इस देस में बना दें

 

दुनिया के तीरथौं से ऊंचा हो अपना तीरथ

दामान-ए आस्मां से उस का कलस मिला दें

फिर एक अनूप ऐसी सोने कि मूर्ती हो

इस हरद्वार-ए दिल में ला कर जिसे बिठा दें

 

सुन्दर हो उस कि सूरत, छब उस कि मोहिनी हो

उस देवता से मांगें जो दिल कि हों मुरादें

जुन्नर हो गले में, तस्बीह हाथ में हो

यानी सनम कदे में शान-ए हरम दिखा दें

 

पहलु को चीर डालें दर्शन हो आम उस का

हर आत्मा को गोया एक आग सी लगा दें

आंखों कि है जो गंगा ले ले के उस से पानी

इस देवता के आगे एक नहर सी बहा दें

 

हिन्दोस्तान लिख दें, माथे पे उस सनम के

बूले हुए तराने दुनिया को फिर सुना दें

हर सुबह उठ के गाएं मंतर वो मीठे मीठे

सारे पुजारियौं को मै पीत कि पिला दें

 

मंदिर में हो बुलाना जिस दम पुजारियौं को

आवाज़ा-ए अज़ां को नाक़ूस में छुपा दें

अग्नि है वो जो निर्गुन, कहते हैं पीत जिस को

धरमौं के ये बखेड़े इस आग में जला दें

 

है रीत आशिक़ौं कि तन मन निसार करना

रोना सितम उठाना और उन को प्यार करना

शक्ति भी शान्ति भी भगतौं के गीत में है

धरती के बासियौं कि मुक्ति परीत में है

naya shivaala (1905) – mohammed iqbal

Click on any passage for word meanings and explanatory discussion.

verse such kah duN aye barahman gar1 tu bura na maane
tere sanam-kadauN2 ke but3 ho gaye puraane
apnauN se bair4 rakhna tu ne butauN se seekha
juNg o jadal5 sikhaaya, vaa’ez6 ko bhi Khuda ne  
1.“agar”, if 2.idol houses, temples 3.idols 4.malice, hostility 5.war and conflict 6.Muslim preacher
I will speak frankly, O Brahmin, if you don’t take offence. The idols in your temples have become irrelevant. You have learnt from idols, contempt for your own people, and god has taught the ways of war and conflict to the Muslim preacher.

kuchh fikr1 phooT2 ki kar, maali hai tu chaman ka
booTauN3 ko phooNk Daala is bis4 bhari hava ne
taNg aa ke maiN ne aaKhir dair5 o haram6 ko chhoRa
vaa’ez7 ka vaa’z8 chhoRa, chhoRe tere fasaane9 
1.worry, concern 2.discord, strife 3.young shoots 4.poison 5.temple 6.mosque 7.muslim preacher 8.islamic sermon 9.fables
O, brahmin, show some concern for strife among our people. After all, you are the gardener of this garden. This foul, poisonous air (of communal strife) has killed off many young shoots. Finally, getting tired of all this, I leave both the temple and mosque. I walk away from the sermon of the muslim preacher and leave your fables, O, brahmin.

patthar ki mooratauN1 meN samjha hai tu Khuda hai
Khaak-e-vatan2 ka mujh ko har zarra3 devta4 hai
1.idols 2.dust of the homeland 3.particle 4.god, deity
O, brahmin, you think that there is god in stone idols. For me, every particle of dust of the homeland is a diety.

aa Ghairiyat1 ke parde ek baar phir uTha deN
bichhRauN2 ko phir mila deN, naqsh-e-duii3 miTa deN
sooni4 paRi hui hai, muddat5 se dil ki basti
aa ek naya shivaala is des6 meN bana deN
1.otherness, difference 2.separated 3.signs of duality, differences 4.desolate 5.long time 6.country, homeland
Come, let us remove/lift the curtain of differences between us. Let us bring together those who have been separated. Let us erase all signs of duality/difference. For too long now, my heart has been desolate. Let us make a new shivala in our homeland.

duniya ke teerathauN1 se ooNcha ho apna teerath
daamaan-e-aasmaN2 se us ka kalas3 mila deN
phir ek anoop4 aisi sone ki moorti5 ho
is hardwaar6-e dil meN laa kar jise biTha deN
1.place of pilgrimage 2.apron/hem of the sky, horizon 3.dome, spire 4.without example, without equal 5.idol 6.door to god
Let our shrine be taller than all other shrines, its dome/spire kissing the sky. Let us make an idol of gold which has no equal and install it in our hearts which is the door to the divine.

sundar1 ho us ki soorat, chhab2 us ki mohini3 ho
us devta4 se maaNgeN jo dil ki hoN muraadeN5
zunnar6 ho gale meN, tasbeeh7 haathh meN ho
y’aani8 sanam-kade9 meN shaan-e-haram10 dikha deN
1.beautiful 2.reflection, image 3.heart pleasing 4.deity 5.desires 6.hindu ceremonial thread 7.islamic prayer beads/rosary 8.meaning 9.idol house, temple 10.glory of the mosque
Let his image be beautiful and heart-pleasing. Let us pray to this deity for all our heart’s desires to be fulfilled. Let there be a hindu ceremonial thread on its shoulder and an islamic rosary in its hands. Let us display the glory of the mosque in the temple.

pahlu1 ko chiir2 DaaleN darshan3 ho ‘aam4 us ka
har aatma5 ko goya6 ek aag si laga deN
aaNkhauN ki hai jo gaNga le le ke us se paani
is devta7 ke aage ek nahr8 si baha deN
1.side, ribs, bosom 2.tear 3.manifestation, view 4.common, available to all 5.soul 6.as if 7.deity 8.river, stream
Let us tear open its bosom, so everyone can see its heart (and the love in it). Let us set every soul on fire (with love). Let us use the tears from our eyes, holy like the waters of the Ganges, to make a stream in front of the deity … I am not sure what this symbolism is, other than poetic flight of fancy.

hindostan likh deN, maathe1 pe us sanam2 ke
bhoole hue taraane3 duniya ko phir suna deN
har subah uTh ke gaa’eN mantar4 vo meeThe, meeThe
saare pujariyauN5 ko mai6 peet7 ki pila deN
1.forehead, brow 2.idol 3.songs 4.hymns 5.devotees 6.wine 7.preet, love
Let us write “hindostan” across the brow of the idol and sing long forgotten songs (of love). Let us rise every morning and sing sweet hymns offering wine of love to all devotees.

mandir1 meN ho bulaana jis dam2 pujaariyauN3 ko
aavaza-e-azaaN4 ko naaqoos5 meN chhupa deN
agni6 hai vo jo nirgun7, kahte haiN peet8 jis ko
dharmauN9 ke ye bakheRe10 is aag meN jala deN
1.temple 2.moment, time 3.devotees 4.sound/call of the azaan (islamic call to prayer) 5.shankh, conch shell 6.fire 7.without qualities, indescribable, absolute, infinite 8.preet, love 9.religions 10.strife, quarrels
When it is time to call devotees to the mandir let us blow the conch shell which has hidden in it the sound of the azaan. That which we call the fire of love, which is absolute, let us burn the differences of all religions in it.

hai reet1 ‘aashiqauN2 ki tan-man3 nisaar4 karna
rona sitam5 uThaana aur un ko pyaar karna
shakti6 bhi shaanti7 bhi bhagtauN8 ke geet meN hai
dharti9 ke baasiyauN10 ki mukti11 pareet12 meN hai
1.tradition, ritual 2.lovers, devotees 3.body and heart, heart and soul 4.offer (devotional offering) 5.oppression, cruelty 6.power 7.peace, tranquility 8.devotees 9.earth, world 10.inhabitants 11.deliverance 12.preet, love
It is a long-standing tradition of lovers/devotees that they offer their heart and soul (to the beloved), that they accept all cruelties (of the beloved) and stay steadfast in love. (Divine) power and peace both lie in the songs of the devotees. The deliverance of the people of this world is in love.

naya shivaala (1905) – mohammed iqbal

such kah duN aye barahman gar1 tu bura na maane
tere sanam-kadauN2 ke but3 ho gaye puraane
apnauN se bair4 rakhna tu ne butauN se seekha
juNg o jadal5 sikhaaya, vaa’ez6 ko bhi Khuda ne

1.“agar”, if 2.idol houses, temples 3.idols 4.malice, hostility 5.war and conflict 6.Muslim preacher

I will speak frankly, O Brahmin, if you don’t take offence. The idols in your temples have become irrelevant. You have learnt from idols, contempt for your own people, and god has taught the ways of war and conflict to the Muslim preacher.

kuchh fikr1 phooT2 ki kar, maali hai tu chaman ka
booTauN3 ko phooNk Daala is bis4 bhari hava ne
taNg aa ke maiN ne aaKhir dair5 o haram6 ko chhoRa
vaa’ez7 ka vaa’z8 chhoRa, chhoRe tere fasaane9

1.worry, concern 2.discord, strife 3.young shoots 4.poison 5.temple 6.mosque 7.muslim preacher 8.islamic sermon 9.fables

O, brahmin, show some concern for strife among our people.  After all, you are the gardener of this garden.  This foul, poisonous air (of communal strife) has killed off many young shoots.  Finally, getting tired of all this, I leave both the temple and mosque.  I walk away from the sermon of the muslim preacher and leave your fables, O, brahmin.

patthar ki mooratauN1 meN samjha hai tu Khuda hai
Khaak-e-vatan2 ka mujh ko har zarra3 devta4 hai

1.idols 2.dust of the homeland 3.particle 4.god, deity

O, brahmin, you think that there is god in stone idols.  For me, every particle of dust of the homeland is a diety.

aa Ghairiyat1 ke parde ek baar phir uTha deN
bichhRauN2 ko phir mila deN, naqsh-e-duii3 miTa deN
sooni4 paRi hui hai, muddat5 se dil ki basti
aa ek naya shivaala is des6 meN bana deN

1.otherness, difference 2.separated 3.signs of duality, differences 4.desolate 5.long time 6.country, homeland

Come, let us remove/lift the curtain of differences between us.  Let us bring together those who have been separated.  Let us erase all signs of duality/difference.  For too long now, my heart has been desolate.  Let us make a new shivala in our homeland.

duniya ke teerathauN1 se ooNcha ho apna teerath
daamaan-e-aasmaN2 se us ka kalas3 mila deN
phir ek anoop4 aisi sone ki moorti5 ho
is hardwaar6-e dil meN laa kar jise biTha deN

1.place of pilgrimage 2.apron/hem of the sky, horizon 3.dome, spire 4.without example, without equal 5.idol 6.door to god

Let our shrine be taller than all other shrines, its dome/spire kissing the sky.  Let us make an idol of gold which has no equal and install it in our hearts which is the door to the divine.

sundar1 ho us ki soorat, chhab2 us ki mohini3 ho
us devta4 se maaNgeN jo dil ki hoN muraadeN5
zunnar6 ho gale meN, tasbeeh7 haathh meN ho
y’aani8 sanam-kade9 meN shaan-e-haram10 dikha deN

1.beautiful 2.reflection, image 3.heart pleasing 4.deity 5.desires 6.hindu ceremonial thread 7.islamic prayer beads/rosary 8.meaning 9.idol house, temple 10.glory of the mosque

Let his image be beautiful and heart-pleasing.  Let us pray to this deity for all our heart’s desires to be fulfilled.  Let there be a hindu ceremonial thread on its shoulder and an islamic rosary in its hands.  Let us display the glory of the mosque in the temple.

pahlu1 ko chiir2 DaaleN darshan3 ho ‘aam4 us ka
har aatma5 ko goya6 ek aag si laga deN
aaNkhauN ki hai jo gaNga le le ke us se paani
is devta7 ke aage ek nahr8 si baha deN

1.side, ribs, bosom 2.tear 3.manifestation, view 4.common, available to all 5.soul 6.as if 7.deity 8.river, stream

Let us tear open its bosom, so everyone can see its heart (and the love in it).  Let us set every soul on fire (with love).  Let us use the tears from our eyes, holy like the waters of the Ganges, to make a stream in front of the deity … I am not sure what this symbolism is, other than poetic flight of fancy.

hindostan likh deN, maathe1 pe us sanam2 ke
bhoole hue taraane3 duniya ko phir suna deN
har subah uTh ke gaa’eN mantar4 vo meeThe, meeThe
saare pujariyauN5 ko mai6 peet7 ki pila deN

1.forehead, brow 2.idol 3.songs 4.hymns 5.devotees 6.wine 7.preet, love

Let us write “hindostan” across the brow of the idol and sing long forgotten songs (of love).  Let us rise every morning and sing sweet hymns offering wine of love to all devotees.

mandir1 meN ho bulaana jis dam2 pujaariyauN3 ko
aavaza-e-azaaN4 ko naaqoos5 meN chhupa deN
agni6 hai vo jo nirgun7, kahte haiN peet8 jis ko
dharmauN9 ke ye bakheRe10 is aag meN jala deN

1.temple 2.moment, time 3.devotees 4.sound/call of the azaan (islamic call to prayer) 5.shankh, conch shell 6.fire 7.without qualities, indescribable, absolute, infinite 8.preet, love 9.religions 10.strife, quarrels

When it is time to call devotees to the mandir let us blow the conch shell which has hidden in it the sound of the azaan.  That which we call the fire of love, which is absolute, let us burn the differences of all religions in it.

hai reet1 ‘aashiqauN2 ki tan-man3 nisaar4 karna
rona sitam5 uThaana aur un ko pyaar karna
shakti6 bhi shaanti7 bhi bhagtauN8 ke geet meN hai
dharti9 ke baasiyauN10 ki mukti11 pareet12 meN hai

1.tradition, ritual 2.lovers, devotees 3.body and heart, heart and soul 4.offer (devotional offering) 5.oppression, cruelty 6.power 7.peace, tranquility 8.devotees 9.earth, world 10.inhabitants 11.deliverance 12.preet, love

It is a long-standing tradition of lovers/devotees that they offer their heart and soul (to the beloved), that they accept all cruelties (of the beloved) and stay steadfast in love.  (Divine) power and peace both lie in the songs of the devotees.  The deliverance of the people of this world is in love.

Key Search Words:  Communal harmony, secularism, nationalism, hindu muslim unity

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