pinhaaN ho gaeeN – raina’s Ghalib

jagjit singh singing

پنہاں ہو گئیں – مرزا  غالب

١

سب کہاں کچھ لالہ و گل میں نمایاں ہو گئیں
خاک میں کیا صورتیں ہونگی کہ پنہاں ہو گئیں

٢

یاد تھیں ہم کو بھی رنگارنگ بزم آرائیاں
لیکن اب نقش و نگارِ طاقِ نسیاں ہو گئیں

٣

تھیں بنات ال نعشِ گردوں دن کو پردے میں نہاں
شب کو ان کے جی میں کیا آئی کہ عریاں ہو گئیں

٤

قید میں یعقوب نے لی گو نہ یوسف کی خبر
لیکن آنکھیں روزنِ دیوارِ زنداں ہو گئیں

٥

سب رقیبوں سے ہوں نا خوش پر زنانِ مصر سے
ہے زلیخا خوش کہ محوِ ماۂ کنعاں ہو گئیں

٦

جوۓ خوں آنکھوں سے بہنے دو کہ ہے شامِ فراق
میں یہ سمجھونگا کہ شمعیں دو فروزاں ہو گئیں

٧

ان پریزادوں سے لینگے خلد میں ہم انتقام
قدرتِ حق سے یہی حوریں اگر واں ہو گئیں

٨

نیند اس کی ہے دماغ اس کا ہے راتیں اس کی ہیں
تیری زلفیں جس کے بازو پر پریشاں ہو گئیں

٩

میں چمن میں کیا گیا گویا دبستاں کھل گیا
بلبلیں سن کر مرے نالے غزل خواں ہو گئیں

١٠

وہ نگاہیں کیوں ہوئی جاتی ہیں یا رب دل کے پار
جو مری کوتاہیِ قسمت سے مژگاں ہو گئیں

١١

بسکہ روکا میں نے اور سینے میں ابھریں پے بہ پے
میری آہیں بخیۂ چاکِ گریباں ہو گئیں

١٢

واں گیا بھی میں تو ان کی گالیوں کا کیا جواب
یاد تھیں جتنی دعائیں صرفِ درباں ہو گئیں

١٣

جاں فزا ہے بادہ جس کے ہاتھ میں جام آ گیا
سب لکیریں ہاتھ کی گویا رگِ جاں ہو گئیں

١٤

ہم موحّد ہیں ہمارا کیش ہے ترکِ رسوم
ملّتیں جب مٹ گئیں اجزاۓ ایماں ہو گئیں

١٥

رنج سے خو گر ہوا انساں تو مٹ جاتا ہے رنج
مشکلیں مجھ پر پڑیں اتنی کہ آساں ہو گئیں

١٦

یوں ہی گر روتا رہا غالب تو اے اہلِ جہاں
دیکھنا ان بستیوں کو تم کہ ویراں ہو گئیں

पिन्हां हो गईं  –  मिर्ज़ा ग़ालिब

1

सब कहां कुछ लालह-ओ-गुल में नुमायां हो गईं
ख़ाक में कया सूरतें होंगी कि पिनहां हो गईं

2

याद थीं हम को भी रनगारनग बज़म-आराइयां
लेकिन अब नक़श-ओ-निगार-ए ताक़-ए निसयां हो गईं

3

थीं बनात उल-न`श-ए गरदूं दिन को परदे में निहां
शब को उन के जी में कया आई कि `उरयां हो गईं

4

क़ैद में य`क़ूब ने ली गो न यूसुफ़ की ख़बर
लेकिन आंखें रौज़न-ए दीवार-ए ज़िनदां हो गईं

5

सब रक़ीबों से हों ना-ख़वुश पर ज़नान-ए मिसर से
है ज़ुलैख़ा ख़वुश कि महव-ए माह-ए कन`आं हो गईं

6

जू-ए ख़ूं आंखों से बहने दो कि है शाम-ए फ़िराक़
मैं यह समझूंगा कि शम`एं दो फ़ुरोज़ां हो गईं

7

इन परीज़ादों से लेंगे ख़ुलद में हम इनतिक़ाम
क़ुदरत-ए हक़ से यिही हूरें अगर वां हो गईं

8

नीनद उस की है दिमाग़ उस का है रातें उस की हैं
तेरी ज़ुलफ़ें जिस के बाज़ू पर परेशां हो गईं

9

मैं चमन में कया गया गोया दबिसतां खुल गया
बुलबुलें सुन कर मिरे नाले ग़ज़ल-ख़वां हो गईं

10

वह निगाहें कयूं हुई जाती हैं या रब दिल के पार
जो मिरी कोताही-ए क़िसमत से मिज़हगां हो गईं

11

बसकि रोका मैं ने और सीने में उभरीं पै ब पै
मेरी आहें बख़यह-ए चाक-ए गरेबां हो गईं

12

वां गया भी मैं तो उन की गालियों का कया जवाब
याद थीं जितनी दु`आएं सरफ़-ए दरबां हो गईं

13

जां-फ़िज़ा है बादह जिस के हाथ में जाम आ गया
सब लकीरें हाथ की गोया रग-ए जां हो गईं

14

हम मुवहहिद हैं हमारा केश है तरक-ए रुसूम
मिललतें जब मिट गईं अजज़ा-ए ईमां हो गईं

15

रनज से ख़ू-गर हुआ इनसां तो मिट जाता है रनज
मुशकिलें मुझ पर पड़ीं इतनी के आसां हो गईं

16

यूं ही गर रोता रहा ग़ालिब तो अय अहल-ए जहां
देखना इन बस्तियों को तुम के वीरां हो गईं

pinhaaN ho gaiiN – mirza Ghalib

Click here for overall comments and on any she’r for meanings and discussion. Ghalib composed this Ghazal about 5 years before 1857 but in the aftermath of the killings in 1857 in which he lost many friends he quotes asha’ar from this Ghazal in his letters. There is much pathos in many of the asha’ar.

1

sab kahaaN kuchh laalah-o-gul1 meN numaayaaN2 ho gaiiN
Khaak meN kyaa suurateN hoNgii kih pinhaaN3 ho gaiiN
1.tulip and rose 2.apparent, manifest 3.hidden
There is a tradition that those who are dead and buried are manifested as flowers.
ho ga’e dafn hazaaroN hi gul-andaam is meN
is liye Khaak se hote haiN gulistaaN paidaa – naasiKh
In Ghalib’s she’r not all, but some have come up as roses and tulips. How many more there must still be hidden in the dust.

2

yaad thiiN ham ko bhii raNgaaraNg bazm-aaraaiyaaN1
lekin ab naqsh-o-nigaar2-e-taaq3-e nisyaaN4 ho gaiiN
1.embellishments of assembly/gathering 2.etchings and decorations 3.cupboard, alcove 4.oblivion, forgetfulness, faint memory
I too used to have memories of colourful gatherings. But now (in old age) even those memories are gone and have become etchings/decorations in the alcove of forgetfulness (faint memory).

3
thiiN banaat ul-naash1-e garduuN din ko parde meN nihaaN2
shab3 ko un ke jii meN kyaa aaii kih uryaaN4 ho gaiiN
1.daughters of the Bier, stars of Ursa Major 2.hidden 3.evening/night 4.naked, unveiled
The playful, suggestive and rhetorical phrasing of this she’r is noted in most discussions. The stars in this constellation are considered “girls” in Arabic/Farsi as well as Indian/Hindu constructions (seven sisters in India). They are behind the veil during the day but don’t know what came into their mind (suggestive) that they came out unveiled (or naked) at night.

4
qaid meN yaquub1 ne lii go2 na yuusuf3 kii Khabar4
lekin aaNkheN rauzan5-e diivaar-e zindaaN6 ho gaiiN
1.Jacob 2.even though 3.Joseph 4.get news of, inquire about 5.peep holes/slit windows 6.prison cell walls
Legend is that Joseph was Jacob’s favourite son whose separation caused Jacob to cry so much that he lost his sight (see other parts of the story in the next she’r). In this narration, Joseph is in prison and even if Jacob could not inquire about his well being, his eyes became peep holes of the cell wall or the outpouring of his tears cracked open the wall just enough to make peep holes. The “eyes” watched over him constantly.

5
sab raqiiboN1 se hoN naa-Khush2 par zanaan-e misr3 se
hai zulaiKhaa4 Khush kih mahv5-e maah-e kanaaN6 ho gaiiN
1.rivals 2.unhappy 3.ladies of Egypt 4.Egyptian lady/princess 5.engrossed 6.moon of the tribe of Canaan, Joseph
Joseph’s legendary good looks gave him the sobriquet “moon of the tribe of Canaan”. His brothers in a fit of jealousy sold him in slavery. He ended up in the house of Potiphar whose wife (Zuleikha) fell for him. Her friends learnt about her infatuation and made fun of her. She arranged for some of them to be in a room cutting lemons and arranged for Joseph to pass through. They were so engrossed in looking at him that everyone of them cut their fingers. This makes Zulaikha happy in the sense of “did I not tell you he was good looking”. Other lovers may be unhappy with rivals, but Zulaikha was not, because she could make her point and score one on them.

6
juu-e KhuuN1 aaNkhoN se bahne do kih hai shaam-e firaaq2
maiN yih samjhuuNgaa kih sham’eN do farozaaN3 ho gaiiN
1.river of blood 2.evening of separation 3.lit up, shine brightly
The imagery is that of two candles burning brightly with melted wax freely flowing down … eyes crying copious tears of blood. Let the river of blood flow and I will think (it will appear as if) two candles are burning brightly.

7
in pariizaadoN1 se leNge Khuld2 meN ham intiqaam3
qudrat-e-haq4 se yihii huureN agar vaaN ho gaiiN
1.children (daughters) of fairies 2.paradise 3.vengeance 4.righteous justice
The beloved(s) have been very cruel to the poet/protagonist. He hopes to go to heaven and IF (the “agar” makes this uncertain, depends on “qudrat-e-haq”) she/they are also there as houris, then he will seek vengeance.

8
niind us kii hai dimaaGh us kaa hai raateN us kii haiN
terii zulfeN1 jis ke baazuu2 par pareshaaN3 ho gaiiN
1.curls, hair 2.shoulder 3.spread
Only he can sleep peacefully, has peace of mind at night who has your hair spread on his shoulder.

9
maiN chaman meN kyaa gayaa goyaa1 dabistaaN2 khul gayaa
bulbuleN sun kar mire naale3 Ghazal-KhwaaN4 ho gaiiN
1.as if 2.school (for instruction) 3.laments 4.Ghazal singers, songsters
The poet as the wronged and neglected lover is always lamenting. And the bulbul learns to sing as soon as he steps into the garden.

10
vo nigaaheN kyuuN huii jaatii haiN yaarab1 dil ke paar
jo mirii kotaahii-e-qismat2 se mizhgaaN3 ho gaiiN
1.o god 2.tightness (paucity) of (good) luck 3.eyelashes
The beloved is casting side-long glances at the lover but because of the paucity of his fortune the glances don’t go beyond the eyelashes – they become like eyelashes. But then O god, why do they still penetrate my heart.

11
baskih1 rokaa maiN ne aur siine meN ubhriiN2 pae ba pae3
merii aaheN baKhyah4-e chaak-e garebaaN5 ho gaiiN
1.even though 2.rose 3.step by step, again and again 4.sewing, stitching 5.tear in the collar
Early Urdu poetic traditions set great value on construction of a she’r on exacting metrical standards and use of metpahors and similes. There is no thematic connection between asha’ar in a Ghazal and sometimes the themes within a she’r appear outlandish. In this one the conventions are … the lover is always passionate/mad and keeps tearing his collar. But the constant sighing and suppression of sighs gives the chest motion like sewing and causes the torn collar to get stitched back up.

12
vaaN gayaa bhii maiN to un kii gaaliyoN kaa kyaa javaab
yaad thiiN jitnii duaa’eN1 sarf2-e darbaaN3 ho gaiiN
1.prayer, solicitation, begging 2.spent on 3.doorkeeper
The lover goes to call on the beloved and is stopped by the doorkeeper. He ends up having to use all his persuasion packaged as “duaa’eN” to get past him to her. Once there he faces abuses but does not have any more “duaa’eN” left. They are all “spent”. Of course, the proud lover just like the proud poet will not repeat the same thing over again.

13
jaaN-fizaa1 hai baadah2 jis ke haath meN jaam3 aa gayaa
sab lakiireN haath kii goyaa4 rag-e jaaN5 ho gaiiN
1.life increasing, life giving 2.wine 3.cup, goblet 4.as if 5.jugular vein
Wine is red, like blood. The lines in the hand are normally dry and lifeless. But if the hand holds a goblet of wine it is as if the lines have become “rag-e-jaaN, jugular vein” because they reflect the colour/liveliness of wine.

14
ham muvahhid1 haiN hamaaraa kesh2 hai tark3-e rusuum4
millateN5 jab miT gaiiN6 ajzaa-e iimaaN7 ho gaiiN
1.believers in “vahdat” – unity 2.faith, practice 3.reject 4.rituals 5.communities 6.got erased 7.components of faith
Nearly all commentators have interpreted “muvahhid” as “mono-theist”. I think I am placing a new meaning into it, when I go to the Sufi inclinations of Ghalib and “vahdat-unity” as that of all “humanity/creation/creator”. Thus, we believe in one-ness of the creator and created. Our faith is to reject all rituals. Thus if communities (communal practices) are erased then they emerge as components of (the same) faith.

15
ranj1 se Khuu-gar2 huaa insaaN to miT jaataa hai ranj
mushkileN mujh par paRiiN itnii kih aasaaN ho gaiiN
1.sorrow, grief 2.habituated, used to If a lot of calamities befall then one can used to sorrow and it becomes easy. So many calamities have befallen the poet that it is now easy for him to face them.

16
yuuN hii gar rotaa rahaa Ghaalib to ay ahl-e jahaaN1
dekhnaa in bastiyoN ko tum kih viiraaN2 ho gaiiN
1.people of the world 2.deserted, desolate O, people of the world, be warned that if Ghalib keeps weeping like this, a flood will result and these settlements will all be deserted.

pinhaaN ho gaiiN – mirza Ghalib

Ghalib composed this Ghazal about 5 years before 1857 but in the aftermath of the killings in 1857 in which he lost many friends he quotes asha’ar from this Ghazal in his letters. There is much pathos in many of the asha’ar.

1
sab kahaaN kuchh laalah-o-gul1 meN numaayaaN2 ho gaiiN
Khaak meN kyaa suurateN hoNgii kih pinhaaN3 ho gaiiN

1.tulip and rose 2.apparent, manifest 3.hidden

There is a tradition that those who are dead and buried are manifested as flowers.

ho ga’e dafn hazaaroN hi gul-andaam is meN
is liye Khaak se hote haiN gulistaaN paidaa  –  naasiKh

In Ghalib’s she’r not all, but some have come up as roses and tulips. How many more there must still be hidden in the dust.

2
yaad thiiN ham ko bhii raNgaaraNg bazm-aaraaiyaaN1
lekin ab naqsh-o-nigaar2-e-taaq3-e nisyaaN4 ho gaiiN

1.embellishments of assembly/gathering 2.etchings and decorations 3.cupboard, alcove 4.oblivion, forgetfulness, faint memory

I too used to have memories of colourful gatherings. But now (in old age) even those memories are gone and have become etchings/decorations in the alcove of forgetfulness (faint memory).

3
thiiN banaat ul-naash1-e garduuN din ko parde meN nihaaN2
shab3 ko un ke jii meN kyaa aaii kih uryaaN4 ho gaiiN

1.daughters of the Bier, stars of Ursa Major 2.hidden 3.evening/night 4.naked, unveiled

The playful, suggestive and rhetorical phrasing of this she’r is noted in most discussions. The stars in this constellation are considered “girls” in Arabic/Farsi as well as Indian/Hindu constructions (seven sisters in India). They are behind the veil during the day but don’t know what came into their mind (suggestive) that they came out unveiled (or naked) at night.

4
qaid meN yaquub1 ne lii go2 na yuusuf3 kii Khabar4
lekin aaNkheN rauzan5-e diivaar-e zindaaN6 ho gaiiN

1.Jacob 2.even though 3.Joseph 4.get news of, inquire about 5.peep holes/slit windows 6.prison cell walls

Legend is that Joseph was Jacob’s favourite son whose separation caused Jacob to  cry so much that he lost his sight (see other parts of the story in the next she’r). In this narration, Joseph is in prison and even if Jacob could not inquire about his well being, his eyes became peep holes of the cell wall or the outpouring of his tears cracked open the wall just enough to make peep holes. The “eyes” watched over him constantly.

5
sab raqiiboN1 se hoN naa-Khush2 par zanaan-e misr3 se
hai zulaiKhaa4 Khush kih mahv5-e maah-e kanaaN6 ho gaiiN

1.rivals 2.unhappy 3.ladies of Egypt 4.Egyptian lady/princess 5.engrossed 6.moon of the tribe of Canaan, Joseph

Joseph’s legendary good looks gave him the sobriquet “moon of the tribe of Canaan”. His brothers in a fit of jealousy sold him in slavery. He ended up in the house of Potiphar whose wife (Zuleikha) fell for him. Her friends learnt about her infatuation and made fun of her. She arranged for some of them to be in a room cutting lemons and arranged for Joseph to pass through. They were so engrossed in looking at him that everyone of them cut their fingers. This makes Zulaikha happy in the sense of “did I not tell you he was good looking”. Other lovers may be unhappy with rivals, but Zulaikha was not, because she could make her point and score one on them.

6
juu-e KhuuN1 aaNkhoN se bahne do kih hai shaam-e firaaq2
maiN yih samjhuuNgaa kih sham’eN do farozaaN3 ho gaiiN

1.river of blood 2.evening of separation 3.lit up, shine brightly

The imagery is that of two candles burning brightly with melted wax freely flowing down … eyes crying copious tears of blood. Let the river of blood flow and I will think (it will appear as if) two candles are burning brightly.

7
in pariizaadoN1 se leNge Khuld2 meN ham intiqaam3
qudrat-e-haq4 se yihii huureN agar vaaN ho gaiiN

1.children (daughters) of fairies 2.paradise 3.vengeance 4.righteous justice

The beloved(s) have been very cruel to the poet/protagonist. He hopes to go to heaven and IF (the “agar” makes this uncertain, depends on “qudrat-e-haq”) she/they are also there as houris, then he will seek vengeance.

8
niind us kii hai dimaaGh us kaa hai raateN us kii haiN
terii zulfeN1 jis ke baazuu2 par pareshaaN3 ho gaiiN

1.curls, hair 2.shoulder 3.spread

Only he can sleep peacefully, has peace of mind at night who has your hair spread on his shoulder.

9
maiN chaman meN kyaa gayaa goyaa1 dabistaaN2 khul gayaa
bulbuleN sun kar mire naale3 Ghazal-KhwaaN4 ho gaiiN

1.as if 2.school (for instruction) 3.laments 4.Ghazal singers, songsters

The poet as the wronged and neglected lover is always lamenting. And the bulbul learns to sing as soon as he steps into the garden.

10
vo nigaaheN kyuuN huii jaatii haiN yaarab1 dil ke paar
jo mirii kotaahii-e-qismat2 se mizhgaaN3 ho gaiiN

1.o god 2.tightness (paucity) of (good) luck 3.eyelashes

The beloved is casting side-long glances at the lover but because of the paucity of his fortune the glances don’t go beyond the eyelashes – they become like eyelashes. But then O god, why do they still penetrate my heart.

11
baskih1 rokaa maiN ne aur siine meN ubhriiN2 pae ba pae3
merii aaheN baKhyah4-e chaak-e garebaaN5 ho gaiiN

1.even though 2.rose 3.step by step, again and again 4.sewing, stitching 5.tear in the collar

Early Urdu poetic traditions set great value on construction of a she’r on exacting metrical standards and use of metpahors and similes. There is no thematic connection between asha’ar in a Ghazal and sometimes the themes within a she’r appear outlandish. In this one the conventions are … the lover is always passionate/mad and keeps tearing his collar. But the constant sighing and suppression of sighs gives the chest motion like sewing and causes the torn collar to get stitched back up.

12
vaaN gayaa bhii maiN to un kii gaaliyoN kaa kyaa javaab
yaad thiiN jitnii duaa’eN1 sarf2-e darbaaN3 ho gaiiN

1.prayer, solicitation, begging 2.spent on 3.doorkeeper

The lover goes to call on the beloved and is stopped by the doorkeeper. He ends up having to use all his persuasion packaged as “duaa’eN” to get past him to her. Once there he faces abuses but does not have any more “duaa’eN” left. They are all “spent”. Of course, the proud lover just like the proud poet will not repeat the same thing over again.

13
jaaN-fizaa1 hai baadah2 jis ke haath meN jaam3 aa gayaa
sab lakiireN haath kii goyaa4 rag-e jaaN5 ho gaiiN

1.life increasing, life giving 2.wine 3.cup, goblet 4.as if 5.jugular vein

Wine is red, like blood. The lines in the hand are normally dry and lifeless. But if the hand holds a goblet of wine it is as if the lines have become “rag-e-jaaN, jugular vein” because they reflect the colour/liveliness of wine.

14
ham muvahhid1 haiN hamaaraa kesh2 hai tark3-e rusuum4
millateN5 jab miT gaiiN6 ajzaa-e iimaaN7 ho gaiiN

1.believers in “vahdat” – unity 2.faith, practice 3.reject 4.rituals
5.communities 6.got erased 7.components of faith

Nearly all commentators have interpreted “muvahhid” as “mono-theist”. I think I am placing a new meaning into it, when I go to the Sufi inclinations of Ghalib and “vahdat-unity” as that of all “humanity/creation/creator”. Thus, we believe in one-ness of the creator and created. Our faith is to reject all rituals. Thus if communities (communal practices) are erased then they emerge as components of (the same) faith.

15
ranj1 se Khuu-gar2 huaa insaaN to miT jaataa hai ranj
mushkileN mujh par paRiiN itnii kih aasaaN ho gaiiN

1.sorrow, grief 2.habituated, used to

If a lot of calamities befall then one can used to sorrow and it becomes easy. So many calamities have befallen the poet that it is now easy for him to face them.

16
yuuN hii gar rotaa rahaa Ghaalib to ay ahl-e jahaaN1
dekhnaa in bastiyoN ko tum kih viiraaN2 ho gaiiN

1.people of the world 2.deserted, desolate

O, people of the world, be warned that if Ghalib keeps weeping like this, a flood will result and these settlements will all be deserted.

Rebirth as Flowers – Badri Raina’s Rendition
1
Fragrant, colourful flowers all are Beauty’s fine rebirth
Yet, how many more faces stifled lie beneath the cumbrous earth
2
I too caroused in dizzy youth ‘mid riotous revelry
But now at last, the thrill is past, and all the ecstacy
6
O let your lifeblood wet your eyes in this twilight of despair
I shall but deem that a dual spark does light the darkening air
7
In heaven shall I my vengeance wreak upon these angel faced lies
Should it be their doubtful destiny to attain to Paradise
8
Visions, and, slumber, and snuggling nights all portions of the head
Upon whose arm your tresses lie luxuriously overspread
9
My entry into the garden touched a symphony of pain
For my doleful sighs made all the birds take the sad refrain
10
Those eyes that at my lucklessness their lovely lids did drop
Why should they yet so pierce my heart and make all my pulses hop
15
Perpetual suffering must one day insensitize the heart
Such a world of ills did crash on me as silenced every smart
16
Should Ghalib’s tears well forth unchecked, like an unabated spout
Then O, be warned one dreadful day the world shall be washed out