saaqi naama 07-iqbal

saaqi naama – mohammed iqbal
Introduction

saaqi naama is one of iqbal’s more celebrated urdu compositions.  It is composed in seven distinct sections strung together as a longer thematic nazm.  It is linguistically beautiful and powerful and presents an intertwined composition of disparate strains including a call for rejuvenation of the ummah, a call for restoring the old glory of islam, political observations about colonialism, sufi concepts of universal love and iqbal’s own development of “Khudi”.  “Khudi” as proposed by iqbal is an amorphous mixture of sense of self, pride, self-reliance, self-respect and ego.  It is iqbal’s concept of the “ideal man” and has echoes of Nietzshe’s “Superman” although iqbal explicitly rejects Nietzshe’s atheism.  The “saaqi” in saaqi naama is god to whom iqbal addresses an appeal.  “saaqi naama” is a well established sub-genre of farsi and urdu poetry – there are long compositions of the same title by hafiz and zuhuri.  Very short introductions to each of the seven sections is given below.

Section 1 – Preamble

The preamble describes the beauty of spring and the throbbing energy of new life, calling upon the “saaqi” (the divine) to reveal secrets/mysteries of divinity.  It is supposed to set the stage for a spring like awakening or re-birth in Islam.

Section 2 – Decay under Colonialism

In this section iqbal observes the many changes taking place in the world as people throw off the yoke of colonialism.  At this stage iqbal is still enamoured with the Russian Revolution and speaks highly of that change as well as of Chinese rising up against British Colonization (Opium Wars).  He laments that every community is waking up but the Muslim is still somnambulant.

Section 3 – Restoration

In the preamble iqbal starts with the idea of spring as a metaphor for renewal.  But this metaphor does not lead to a call for reformation but rather to a call for restoration of an imagined ancient glory.  He gives up on the older generation and hopes that the younger generation will be an improvement.  He makes an impassioned plea to the “saaqi” to endow the younger generation with the same passion (divine love akin to Sufism) that drives him.

Section 4 – vahdat-al-vujood

What drives iqbal is the concept of one-ness of all – the creator and creation.  This sufi concept of “vahdat-al-vujood” akin to the Vedic concept of “advaita” is described in a few beautiful asha’ar which also bring out “apparent” contradictions of multiplicity of manifestations of the same spirit, therefore not a contradiction.

Section 5 – manzil

Life is not defined as reaching a “manzil – destination”, says iqbal but as a constant movement, constant struggle.  Life likes the struggle/process more than the destination.  It is this struggle that overcomes death and rejuvenates itself.

Section 6 – Khudi

iqbal defines “Khudi” in linguistically beautiful terms as a combination of almost super-human qualities of self-reliance and individuality.  The underpinning is to call on youth to acquire “Khudi”.  “Khudi” is one with the “divine spirit” going back to the concept of vahdat-al-vujood.

Section 7 – The Message

The concluding section is largely a further definition of “Khudi” combined with a call to action.  “Khudi” does not bow to power.  Basic sustenance is but the first stage of “Khudi” and there are many worlds beyond this waiting for your onslaught, waiting to be conquered.  Says iqbal, “there is much more in my heart, but if I fly beyond this, my wings will be singed”.  It is up to you, O reader, to take it forward.

ساقی نامہ – محمد اقبال
حصّہ ۷

 

خودی كے نگہباں کو ہے زہرِ ناب
وہ ناں جس سے جاتی رہی اسکی آب
وہی ناں ہے اس كے لئے ارجمند
رہے جس سے دُنیا میں گردن بلند

 

فر و فالِ محمود سے دَر گزر
خودی کو نگہ رکھ ایازی نہ کر
وہی سجدہ ہے لائقِ اہتمام
كہ ہو جس سے ہر سجدہ تجھ پر حرام

 

یہ عالم یہ ہنگامۂ رنگ و صوت
یہ عالم كہ ہے زیرِ فرمانِ موت
یہ عالم یہ بُت خانۂ چشم و گوش
جہاں زندگی ہے فقط خورد و نوش

 

خودی کی یہ ہے منزلِ اوّلیں
مسافر ! یہ تیرا نشیمن نہیں
تیری آگ اِس خاکداں سے نہیں
جہاں تجھ سے ہے ، تو جہاں سے نہیں

 

بڑھے جا یہ کوہِ گراں توڑ کر
طلسمِ زمان و مکان توڑ کر
خودی شیرِ مولا ، جہاں اِس کا صید
زمیں اِس کی  صید، آسْمان اِس کاصید

 

جہاں اور بھی ہیں ابھی بے نمود
كہ خالی نہیں ہے ضمیرِ وجود
ہر اک منتظر تیری یلغار کا
تیری شوخیٔ فکر و کردار کا

 

یہ ہے مقصدِ گردشِ روزگار
كہ تیری خودی تجھ پہ ہو آشکار
تو ہے فاتحِ عالمِ خوب و زشت
تجھے کیا بتاؤں تیری سرنوشت

 

حقیقت پہ ہے جامۂ حرف تنگ
حقیقت ہے آئینہ گفتار زنگ
فروزاں ہے سینے میں شمع نفس
مگر تابِ گفتار کہتی ہے بس

 

اگر یک سَرِ موئے برتر پرم
فروغِ تجلّی بسوزد پرم

 

साक़ी नामा – मोहम्मद इक़्बाल

हिस्सा ७

 

ख़ुदी के निगहबां को है ज़हर-ए नाब

वो नां जिस से जाती रही उसकी आब

वही नां है उस के लिए अरजुमंद

रहे जिस से दुनिया में गरदन बलन्द

 

फ़र ओ फ़ाल-ए महमूद से दर गुज़र

ख़ुदी को निगह रख अयाज़ी ना कर

वही सिजदा है ला’एक़-ए एहतेमाम

के हो जिस से हर सिज्दा तुझ पर हराम

 

ये आलम ये हंगामा-ए रंग ओ सौत

ये आलम के है ज़ेर-ए फ़रमान-ए मौत

ये आलम ये बुत-ख़ाना-ए चश्म ओ गोश

जहां ज़िंदगी है फ़क़त ख़ुर्द ओ नोश

 

ख़ुदी की ये है मंज़िल-ए अव्वलीं

मुसाफ़िर! ये तेरा नशेमन नहीं

तेरी आग इस ख़ाकदां से नहीं

जहां तुझ से है, तू जहां से नहीं

 

बढे जा ये कोह-ए गिरां तोड़ कर

तिलस्म-ए ज़मान ओ मकां तोड़ कर

ख़ुदी शेर-ए मौला, जहां इस का सैद

ज़मीं इस की सैद, आस्मां इस का सैद

 

जहां और भी हैं अभी बे-नुमूद

के ख़ाली नहीं है ज़मीर-ए वुजूद

हर एक मुंतज़ीर तेरी यलग़ार का

तेरी शुख़ी-ए फ़िक्र ओ किरदार का

 

ये है मक़्सद-ए गरदिश-ए रोज़गार

के तेरी ख़ुदी तुझ पे हो आश्कार

तू है फ़ातेह-ए आलम-ए ख़ूब ओ ज़िश्त

तुझे क्या बताऊं तेरी सरनविश्त

 

हक़ीक़त पे है जामा-ए हरफ़ तंग

हक़ीक़त है आईना गुफ़्तार ज़ंग

फ़रोज़ान् है सीने में शमा’ नफ़स

मगर ताब-ए गुफ़्तार कहती है बस

 

अगर यक सर-ए मू-ए बरतर परम

फरोग़-ए तजल्ली बा-सोज़द परम

saaqi naama – mohammed iqbal
Section 7

See Background tab for full introduction.  Click here for introduction to this concluding section.  Click on any passage for meanings and discussion. The concluding section is largely a further definition of “Khudi” combined with a call to action. “Khudi” does not bow to power. Basic sustenance is but the first stage of “Khudi” and there are many worlds beyond this waiting for your onslaught, waiting to be conquered. Says iqbal, “there is much more in my heart, but if I fly beyond this, my wings will be singed”. It is up to you to take it forward. See “Background tab” for a full introduction.

Khudi ke nigahbaaN1 ko hai zahr-e naab2
vo naaN3 jis se jaati rahe uski aab4
vahi naaN hai us ke liye arjumand5
rahe jis se duniya meN gardan baland6 
1.guardian 2.pure, unalloyed, strong 3.bread, sustenance 4.honor, respect 5.venerable, good 6.high, upright
The guardian/keeper of “Khudi” leads a self-reliant, self respecting life and does not accept sustenance which is not honourable – does not fawn to power. Only that sustenance is good for him which allows him to hold his head upright (does not bow).

far o faal1-e mahmud2 se dar guzar3
Khudi ko nigah4 rakh ayaazi5 na kar
vahi sijda6 hai laa’eq7-e ehtemaam8
ke ho jis se har sijda tujh par haraam9 
1.pomp and show 2.king 3.get past, leave it behind 4.keep in sight 5.slavery 6.worshipful slavery 7.deserving of 8.effort 9.forbidden
mahmud (emperor) and his slave ayaaz had a legendary relationship where the slave was utterly devoted to the master. In other places iqbal has used this as a metaphor for love of the divine. Here he uses it in a negative sense. Keep “Khudi” in your sight and don’t be an abject slave like ayaaz. Ignore the pomp and show of the powerful. Only that worship (of god) is worth the effort which makes all other worship forbidden.

ye aalam1, ye haNgaama2-e raNg o saut3
ye aalam ke hai zer4-e farmaan5-e maut
ye aalam ye but-Khaana6-e chashm7 o gosh8
jahaaN zindagi hai faqat9 Khurd-o-nosh10  
1.world 2.hustle bustle 3.colour and sound 4.under 5.edict, orders 6.house of idols 7.eye 8.ear 9.only 10.food and eating
The world is a hustle bustle of sound and colour i.e. activity. It is under a death sentence i.e. it is mortal. The world is a house of idols of eyes and ears i.e. that can be seen and heard i.e. this is but a material (as opposed to spiritual) world. In this world the only concern is food and eating.

Khudi ki ye hai manzil1-e avvaliN2
musaafir3! ye tera nasheman4 nahiN
teri aag5 is KhaakdaaN6 se nahiN
jahaaN7 tujh se hai, tu jahaaN se nahiN
1.destination, used here to mean a stage towards the destination 2.first 3.traveler 4.nest, home 5.fire 6.clay pot meaning earth 7.world
This world (of sight and sound, this material world of food and eating) is but the first stage towards your destination. O traveler (do not deceive yourselves), this is not your home. Your fire/passion is not of this world. This world is because of you, you are not of this world.

baRhe jaa ye koh1-e garaaN2 toR kar
tilasm3-e zamaan4 o makaaN5 toR kar
Khudi sher6-e maula7, jahaaN is ka saiyd8
zamiN is ki saiyd, aasmaaN is ka saiyd
1.hills, mountains 2.heavy, difficult, high 3.illusion 4.time 5.place 6.lion of 7.the lord (god) 8.prey
Go forward, breaking these high mountains, breaking through this illusion of time and space. “Khudi” is the lion of god. This world is its (natural) prey, the earth and the sky are its prey.

jahaaN1 aur bhi haiN abhi be-numood2
ke Khaali nahiN hai zamir3-e vujood4
har ek muntazir5 teri yalGhaar6 ka
teri shooKhi7-e fikr8 o kirdaar9 ka
1.world(s) 2.without manifestation i.e. hidden 3.heart of 4.existence, creation 5.waiting 6.ambush 7.playfulness 8.thought, philosophy 9.character
Also see iqbal’s “sitaarauN ke aage jahaaN aur bhi haiN” and recall Ghalib’s manzar ek balandi par aur hum banaa lete arsh se udhar hota, kaash ke makaaN apna Says iqbal – there are many more undiscovered worlds. The heart of creation is not of nothing. Each world is waiting for your ambush (for you to discover it). It is waiting for the play of your thinking and of your action.

ye hai maqsad1-e gardish2-e rozgaar3
ke teri Khudi tujh pe ho aashkaar4
tu hai faateh5-e aalam6-e Khoob-o-zisht7
tujhe kya bataauN teri sarnavisht8  
1.purpose 2.circulation, rotation 3.day and night, earth 4.reveal 5.conquerer 6.world of 7.beautiful and ugly, good and bad 8.your story
This is the purpose of the movement/rotation of the earth – that the power of your “Khudi” be revealed to you. You are the conquerer of the world of good and evil. How can I tell you your own story.

haqiqat1 pe hai jaama2-e harf3 taNg4
haqiqat hai aiina5 guftaar6 zaNg7
farozaaN8 hai seene meN shama’ nafas9
magar taab10-e guftaar6 kahti hai bas11  
1.reality 2.garment 3.words 4.tight, ill fitting 5.mirror 6.speech, words 7.rust 8.luminous 9.breath 10.weight, difficulty 11.enough
Words are but an ill fitting garment on truth. Truth is like a shining mirror and words mere rust. Although the lamp of breath still shines in my breast, the difficulty of speech tells me to stop.

agar yak sar-e moo-e bartar param
faroGh-e tajalli ba-sozad param
If I fly even one hair breadth beyond this stage, my wings will be burnt by the increasing brilliance (of Truth).

saaqi naama – mohammed iqbal
Section 7

The concluding section is largely a further definition of “Khudi” combined with a call to action.  “Khudi” does not bow to power.  Basic sustenance is but the first stage of “Khudi” and there are many worlds beyond this waiting for your onslaught, waiting to be conquered.  Says iqbal, “there is much more in my heart, but if I fly beyond this, my wings will be singed”.  It is up to you to take it forward.  See “Background tab” for a full introduction.

Khudi ke nigahbaaN1 ko hai zahr-e naab2
vo naaN3 jis se jaati rahe uski aab4
vahi naaN hai us ke liye arjumand5
rahe jis se duniya meN gardan baland6

1.guardian 2.pure, unalloyed, strong 3.bread, sustenance 4.honor, respect 5.venerable, good 6.high, upright

The guardian/keeper of “Khudi” leads a self-reliant, self respecting life and does not accept sustenance which is not honourable – does not fawn to power.  Only that sustenance is good for him which allows him to hold his head upright (does not bow).

far o faal1-e mahmud2 se dar guzar3
Khudi ko nigah4 rakh ayaazi5 na kar
vahi sijda6 hai laa’eq7-e ehtemaam8
ke ho jis se har sijda tujh par haraam9

1.pomp and show 2.king 3.get past, leave it behind 4.keep in sight 5.slavery 6.worshipful slavery 7.deserving of 8.effort 9.forbidden

mahmud (emperor) and his slave ayaaz had a legendary relationship where the slave was utterly devoted to the master.  In other places iqbal has used this as a metaphor for love of the divine.  Here he uses it in a negative sense.  Keep “Khudi” in your sight and don’t be an abject slave like ayaaz.  Ignore the pomp and show of the powerful.  Only that worship (of god) is worth the effort which makes all other worship forbidden.

ye aalam1, ye haNgaama2-e raNg o saut3
ye aalam ke hai zer4-e farmaan5-e maut
ye aalam ye but-Khaana6-e chashm7 o gosh8
jahaaN zindagi hai faqat9 Khurd-o-nosh10

1.world 2.hustle bustle 3.colour and sound 4.under 5.edict, orders 6.house of idols 7.eye 8.ear 9.only 10.food and eating

The world is a hustle bustle of sound and colour i.e. activity.  It is under a death sentence i.e. it is mortal.  The world is a house of idols of eyes and ears i.e. that can be seen and heard i.e. this is but a material (as opposed to spiritual) world.  In this world the only concern is food and eating.

Khudi ki ye hai manzil1-e avvaliN2
musaafir3! ye tera nasheman4 nahiN
teri aag5 is KhaakdaaN6 se nahiN
jahaaN7 tujh se hai, tu jahaaN se nahiN

1.destination, used here to mean a stage towards the destination 2.first 3.traveler 4.nest, home 5.fire 6.clay pot meaning earth 7.world

This world (of sight and sound, this material world of food and eating) is but the first stage towards your destination.  O traveler (do not deceive yourselves), this is not your home.  Your fire/passion is not of this world.  This world is because of you, you are not of this world.

baRhe jaa ye koh1-e garaaN2 toR kar
tilasm3-e zamaan4 o makaaN5 toR kar
Khudi sher6-e maula7, jahaaN is ka saiyd8
zamiN is ki saiyd, aasmaaN is ka saiyd

1.hills, mountains 2.heavy, difficult, high 3.illusion 4.time 5.place 6.lion of 7.the lord (god) 8.prey

Go forward, breaking these high mountains, breaking through this illusion of time and space.  “Khudi” is the lion of god.  This world is its (natural) prey, the earth and the sky are its prey.

jahaaN1 aur bhi haiN abhi be-numood2
ke Khaali nahiN hai zamir3-e vujood4
har ek muntazir5 teri yalGhaar6 ka
teri shooKhi7-e fikr8 o kirdaar9 ka

1.world(s) 2.without manifestation i.e. hidden 3.heart of 4.existence, creation 5.waiting 6.ambush 7.playfulness 8.thought, philosophy 9.character

Also see iqbal’s “sitaarauN ke aage jahaaN aur bhi haiN” and recall Ghalib’s
manzar ek balandi par aur hum banaa lete
arsh se udhar hota, kaash ke makaaN apna
Says iqbal – there are many more undiscovered worlds.  The heart of creation is not of nothing.  Each world is waiting for your ambush (for you to discover it).  It is waiting for the play of your thinking and of your action.

ye hai maqsad1-e gardish2-e rozgaar3
ke teri Khudi tujh pe ho aashkaar4
tu hai faateh5-e aalam6-e Khoob-o-zisht7
tujhe kya bataauN teri sarnavisht8

1.purpose 2.circulation, rotation 3.day and night, earth 4.reveal 5.conquerer 6.world of 7.beautiful and ugly, good and bad 8.your story

This is the purpose of the movement/rotation of the earth – that the power of your “Khudi” be revealed to you.  You are the conquerer of the world of good and evil.  How can I tell you your own story.

haqiqat1 pe hai jaama2-e harf3 taNg4
haqiqat hai aiina5 guftaar6 zaNg7
farozaaN8 hai seene meN shama’ nafas9
magar taab10-e guftaar6 kahti hai bas11

1.reality 2.garment 3.words 4.tight, ill fitting 5.mirror 6.speech, words 7.rust 8.luminous 9.breath 10.weight, difficulty 11.enough

Words are but an ill fitting garment on truth.  Truth is like a shining mirror and words mere rust.  Although the lamp of breath still shines in my breast, the difficulty of speech tells me to stop.

agar yak sar-e moo-e bartar param
faroGh-e tajalli ba-sozad param

If I fly even one hair breadth beyond this stage, my wings will be burnt by the increasing brilliance (of Truth).

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