14-dasrath dehaanth-panDit chandr choR

For word meanings and explanatory discussion in English click on the “Roman” or “Notes” tab.  The “Introduction” tab offers a background of the whole series of posts that constitute a patchy reconstruction of the ramayan.

The ramayan has fascinated minds in India and worldwide for millennia, for the beauty of its literary composition, for its fascinating story content as well as for faith and reverence.  It is not surprising then that the Ramayan has been translated not only into all major languages, but also into unexpected ones like Polish, Norwegian and Swedish.  What is surprising is that there are more than twice as many poetic translations/trans-compositions of the ramayan in urdu as there are of the qur’aan and that the ramayan was translated into urdu even before the qur’aan was.

A book “urdu meN hindu dharm” (Hindu Religion in Urdu), Ajai Malviya,  written in Urdu, catalogues in detail urdu translations of the vedas (66), ramayan (103), mahabharat (38), bhagwad gita (83), puranas (44), manu smriti (4), biography of vashisht (14) and miscellaneous other religious compositions (472) spanning about 200 years of publications.

Why has this significant piece of literature been relegated to a neglected and ignored heap of disdain?  This needs to be corrected.  The sheer number and the high poetic and linguistic quality of this literature surprised me as I worked to string together representative parts of urdu nazm/poems of ramayan by different poets, like pearls strung in a necklace, into a near complete story.

A close reading of urdu ramayan translations offers some fascinating lessons about mingling of cultures in India, the origins and “ownership” of Urdu language, the power of the pen across languages and cultures and the universality of basic human emotions.  One is struck deeply by the acceptance and seamless adoption of multiple religious traditions as indicated by the observation that many ramayan renderings (even some by hindu poets) start with “bismillah ir-rahman ir-rahim” and a “hamd” (an ode and/or expression of gratitude to god).  Since god, like language, has no religion, these odes/hamd/vandana are entirely secular/universal. 

It is highly contentious to say that urdu is a muslim language (as if a language has religion) or even to say that urdu is a language of muslims.  There are large numbers of muslims (Bengal, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka) who do not know/speak urdu.  One of the important reasons that East Pakistan separated and declared baNgladesh was that it did not want urdu to be imposed on it in preference to its own language, beNgali.

Of the 100 or so translations/re-compositions of the ramayan in urdu more than 80 were written/composed by hindu writers/poets.  In most, if not all cases the poets were orthodox, believing, practicing hindus.  Why were they writing the ramayan in urdu?  I speculate that there must have been a large section of literate hindu population who considered Urdu their primary language, not because of political favours but because it was naturally their language.  Some of the poets who re-composed tulsidas’ ramcharitmanas suggest that because it was written in “bhaaka or bhaasha” and not easily available to everyone.  Therefore, they translated/re-composed it in urdu, perhaps implying that this is more comprehensible than “bhaaka/bhaasha”.  Apparently by the 1800s neither avadhi nor braj bhaasha were considered a common language.  To show the role urdu played in devotional traditions of north Indian hindus, I paraphrase from a book by bishweshwar parshad munavvar, himself a poet and son of dwaarka parshad ufaq (another poet of renown, who composed a full urdu ramayan).  He writes that, because of the effort of munshi jagannath Khushtar (1809-1864) and munshi shankar dayal farhat (1843-1904) in translating hindu religious texts into urdu, the teachings of the ramayan saved the hindu religion from further decline.  Before we run away with the image of an alien force coming down to “save” hinduism, it might be useful put this quote in perspective.  We have to make an effort to understand that what he might have meant is that there was a substantial community of hindus to whom religious texts were not comprehensible because they were written either in sanskrit or avadhi while their primary language of learning was urdu.  Thus, these translations made religious texts available to them.

Surely these poets, most of whom were believing and observant hindus must have had an audience/readership of similarly devout believers, who revered the composition itself and must have had the linguistic finesse to enjoy its literary excellence.  It draws a picture of a large section of literate hindu population who considered urdu their primary language, not because of political favours but because it was naturally their language.  We do not have any data taken by ‘pollsters’ to show that this was the case.  But we can make some speculative estimates by numbers of publications and the content of those publications.  I am unable to compile a scholarly accounting of such magazines and the numerous contributions of urdu writers.  Suffice it to present to you names of some daily, weekly or monthly publications, “sanaatan dharm pracharak”, “tej”, “aarya veer”, “veer India”, “arya Gazette”, “bande maataram”, “jain sansaar”, “sher-e hind”, “raajput Gazette” and even “agarwal hiteshi” that were published in urdu, some as late as the 1940s.  All had editors and contributors who were hindu (at least by name).

The compositions and publications of urdu ramayan cover roughly 1825-1980.  These poets also wrote secular/romantic Ghazal, nazm as well as other devotional pieces to krishn, lakshmi and many others.  The question needs to be asked, but remains unanswered because of lack of documentary evidence, whether these poets, steeped in urdu poetic culture, also recited parts of the ramayan in the mushaa’era that they participated in.  What was the composition of the audience?  They also composed bhajans in urdu.  Were these bhajans sung in religious gatherings.  We know that bhajans composed by syed ibrahim ras Khan (1548-1628) in braj bhaasha, proto-urdu, are sung to this day in prayer meetings.  There is every reason to believe that urdu compositions of ramayan were also recited, heard and enjoyed in public gatherings whether they may be called mushaa’era or not.

Well over twenty samples from urdu ramayan composed by different poets over nearly two centuries have been selected in story sequence and strung together like the beads of a tasbiih/jap-mala.  This study of the urdu ramayan shows the versatility, beauty and power of urdu, its ownership by a wide range of communities of India, and the easy and seamless acceptance, adoption and cross pollination of one another’s traditions by all faith systems.  Alas, somewhere along the way, we have lost this unique syncretic tradition.  It is my fervent hope that such studies will contribute a little to its revival.

 

دسرتھ دیہانت ۔ پنڈت چندر چوڑ

۱

سمنتِ نیک خُو واپس جب آیا

جنابِ رام کا قِصّہ سنایا

شہ دسرتھ مریضِ فرقتِ رام

پڑا تھا بسترِ زحمت پہ ناکام

پڑپتا تھا مثالِ مرغِ بسمل

غریقِ بحرِ غم تھا سخت بیدل

۲

خبر سُن کر سمنتِ نکتہ ور سے

ہوا گریہ کناں دردِ جگر سے

ہوئے نالہ کناں اہلِ محل سب

وفورِ غم سے خواہانِ اجل سب

بشِشٹِ رازداں نے آخرش کار

تسلّی دے کے سمجھایا شہریار

۳

کہا دسرتھ نے کوشلیا سے رانی

فراقِ رام لے گا زندگانی

سرون کے باپ کی یہ بد دعا ہے

اِسی میں بس ہمارا خاتمہ ہے

تلاشِ صید میں اِک روز تھا میں

ملا دن بھر نہ کچھ آخر تھکا میں

۴

بہ وقتِ شام بیٹھا گھات میں تھا

کہ چشمہ پر سرون پانی کو آیا

سنی آواز جب پانی کی میں نے

یہ جانا صید آیا پانی پینے

اُسی آواز پر اِک تیر مارا

ہوا زخمی سرون زاہد قضارا

۵

سنا جب شور میں پہنچا وہیں پر

سرون دیکھا پڑا بسمل زمیں پر

جو پوچھا کون ہے کیا نام تیرا

کہا برہمن سرون ہے نام میرا

یہ سنتے ہی مرے بس اُڑ گئے ہوش

کہا پھر معاف کر مجھ کو خطا پوش

۶

کیا پھر نام اپنا آشکارا

تجھے افسوس بے تقصیر مارا

سرون بولا براہِ مہربانی

میں آیا تھا یہاں لینے کو پانی

مرے مادر پدر ہیں کور دونو

پیاسے ہیں بہت کمزور دونو

۷

اُنہیں دسرتھ براہِ مہربانی

پلا دے اب ذرا لے جا کے پانی

مرے سینے سے بھی شاہِ دل افروز

ذرا لے کھینچ یہ تیرِ جگر دوز

نکالا تیر میں نے مر گیا وہ

مرے سر پر گناہ یہ دھر گیا وہ

۸

گیا پھر پاس اُن کے لے کے پانی

میں لایا ہوں کہا یہ لیجے پانی

وہ بولے کون ہے پہلے بتا تُو

ہمیں پھر بعد میں پانی پِلا تُو

سرون تُو ہے نہیں یہ ہم نے جانا

میں ہوں دسرتھ کہا یہ مردِ دانا

۹

بیاں قِصّہ کیا پھر میں نے سارا

وہ بولے ہو چکا جینا ہمارا

کہا رو کر ہمیں لے چل وہاں پر

پڑی ہے لاش سرون کی جہاں پر

وہاں آ کر اُنہوں نے بد دعا دی

کہ حاصل ہو تجھے بھی نامرادی

۱۰

مَرے غم میں پسر کے جس طرح ہم

مَرے گا تُو بھی دسرتھ پا یہی غم

یہ کہہ کر جان دی دونو نے رانی

مری بھی ہو چکی بس زندگانی

سُنا کر یہ ہوا خاموش دسرتھ

نہ دم مارا ہُوا بے ہوش دسرتھ

نکل تن سے گئی بس جانِ دسرتھ

ہُوا سُرپُر میں جا مہمان دسرتھ

۱۱

ہوا بازارِ گریہ گرم دو چند

وفاتِ شوہر و بن باسِ فرزند

بھرت اور ستروہن نانا کے گھر تھے

وہ اِس موقع سے بالکل بے خبر تھے

بشِشٹِ باخرد نے چابکانہ

کیا کشمیر کو قاصد روانہ

۱۲

بھرت آئے اودھ میں حال دیکھا

کہ اہلِ شہر کو بے حال دیکھا

سنی مرگِ پدر بن باسِ رگھُبر

ہوئے محوِ فغاں دونو برادر

تشدّد گوش کر کے کیکئی کا

پریشاں ہو گیا جی بھرت جی کا

۱۳

وہ روتے پیٹتے افسوس کرتے

ہوئے داخل محل میں سانس بھرتے

کوشلیا نے گلے اُن کو لگایا

تسلّی دے کے پہلو میں بٹھایا

سُنائی داستانِ غم بہ زاری

نہ تھا چارہ مگر جُز اشک باری

۱۴

بھرت نے کیکئی کے پاس جا کر

مثالِ مارِ پیچاں پیچ کھا کر

کہا مادر ستم ایجاد کر دی

خزاں بن کر چمن برباد کر دی

یہ کیا دل میں سمایا حاسدانہ

نکالا رام گھر سے ظالمانہ

۱۵

لگایا داغ بزمِ خانداں کو

جلی خود بھی جلایا شمع داں کو

بطن سے گر ترے پیدا نہ ہوتا

جہاں میں آج میں رُسوا نہ ہوتا

نہیں آتی تجھے غیرت جفا کیش

کہ خود بیوہ بنی ظالم بداندیش

۱۶

پسر کو بھی یتیم اپنے بنایا

مِٹایا باپ اور بھائی کا سایا

پہن سکتا نہیں میں تاجِ شاہی

مبارک رام کو ہو بادشاہی

غرض کر کے بہت لعنت ملامت

دِلائی خوب مادر کو ندامت

۱۷

کنیزک کی بھی کر کے خوب خواری

کمر میں شترہن نے لات ماری

بہ فرمانِ بشِشٹِ نکتۂ بیں

کیا ساماں پئے تجہیز و تکفیں

بھرت نے پھر بہ رسمِ خسروانہ

جلائی لاشِ دسرتھ غمزدانہ

दस्रथ देहांत – पंडित चन्द्र चोड़

समंत-ए नेक ख़ू वापस जब आया

जनाब-ए राम का क़िस्सा सुनाया

शह-ए दस्रथ मरीज़-ए फ़ुर्क़त-ए राम

पड़ा था बिस्तर-ए ज़हमत पे नाकाम

तड़पता था मिसाल-ए मुर्ग़-ए बिस्मिल

ग़रीक़-ए बहर-ए ग़म था, सख़्त बेदिल

ख़बर सुन कर समंत-ए नुक्ता-वर से

हुआ गिरिया-कुनां दर्द-ए जिगर से

हुए नाला-कुनां अहल-ए महल सब

वुफ़ूर-ए ग़म से ख़्वाहान-ए अजल सब

बशिश्ट-ए राज़्दां ने आख़रश-कार

तसल्ली दे के समझाया शहर-यार

कहा दस्रथ ने कौशलिया से रानी

फ़िराक़-ए राम लेगा ज़िंदगानी

स्रवन के बाप की ये बद-दुआ है

इसी में बस हमारा ख़ातमा है

तलाश-ए सैद में एक रोज़ था मैं

मिला दिन भर न कुछ आख़र थका मैं

ब-वक़्त-ए शाम बैठा घात में था

के चश्मे पर स्रवन पानी को आया

सुनी आवाज़ जब पानी कि मैं ने

ये जाना सैद आया पानी पीने

उसी आवाज़ पर एक तीर मारा

हुआ ज़ख़्मी स्रवन ज़ाहद क़ज़ारा

सुना जब शोर मैं पहुंचा वहीं पर

स्रवन देखा पढा बिस्मिल ज़मीं पर

जो पूछा कौन है क्या नाम तेरा

कहा बरहमन स्रवन है नाम मेरा

ये सुनते ही मेरे बस उढ गए होश

कहा फिर मो’अफ़ कर मुझ को ख़ता-पोश

किया फिर नाम अपना आश्कारा

तुझे अफ़्सोस बे-तक़्सीर मारा

स्रवन बोला ब-राह-ए महरबानी

मैं आया था यहां लेने को पानी

मेरे मादर पिदर हैं कूर दोनो

प्यासे हैं बहुत कमज़ोर दोनो

उन्हें दस्रथ ब-राह-ए महरबानी

पिला दे अब ज़रा ले जा के पानी

मेरे सीने से भी शाह-ए दिल-अफ़्रोज़

ज़ारा ले खैंच ये तीर-ए जिगर-दोज़

निकाला तीर मैं ने मर गया वो

मेरे सर पर गुनह ये धर गया वो

गया फिर पास उन के ले के पानी

मैं लाया हूं कहा ये लीजे पानी

वो बोले कौन है पहले बता तू

हमें फिर बाद में पानी पिला तू

स्रवन तू है नहीं ये हम ने जाना

मैं हूं दस्रथ कहा ये मर्द-ए दाना

बयां क़िस्सा किया फिर मैं ने सारा

वो बोले हो चुका जीना हमारा

कहा रो कर हमें ले चल वहां पर

पढी है लाश स्रवन की जहां पर

वहां आ कर उन्हों ने बद-दुआ दी

के हासिल हो तझे भी नामुरादी

१०

मरे ग़म में पिसर के जिस तरह हम

मरेगा तू भी दस्रथ पा यही ग़म

ये कहकर जान दी दोनो ने रानी

मेरी भी हो चुकी बस ज़िन्दगानी

सुना कर ये हुआ ख़ामोश दस्रथ

न दम मारा हुआ बे-होश दस्रथ

निकल तन से गई बस जान-ए दस्रथ

हुआ सुर-पुर में जा मेहमान दस्रथ

११

हुआ बाज़ार-ए गिरिया गर्म दो-चन्द

वफ़ात-ए शौहर ओ बनबास-ए फ़र्ज़ंद

भरत और सत्रुहन नाना के घर थे

वो इस मौक़’ए से बिल्कुल बेख़बर थे

बशिश्ठ-ए बा-ख़िरद ने चाबुकाना

किया कश्मीर को क़ासिद रवाना

१२

भरत आए अवध मे हाल देखा

के अहल-ए शहर को बेहाल देखा

सुनी मर्ग-ए पिदर बनबास-ए रघुबर

हुए महव-ए फ़ुग़ां दोनो बरादर

तशद्दुद गोश कर के केकई का

परेशां हो गया जी भरत जी का

१३

वो रोते पीटते अफ़्सोस करते

हुए दाख़ल महल में सांस भरते

कोशल्या ने गले उन को लगाया

तसल्ली दे के पहलू में बीठाया

सुनाई दास्तान-ए ग़म ब-ज़ारी

न था चारा मगर जुज़ अश्क-बारी

१४

भरत ने केकई के पास जा कर

मिसाल-ए मार-ए पेचां पेच खा कर

कहा मादर सितम-ईजाद कर दी

ख़िज़ां बन कर चमन बरबाद कर दी

ये क्या दिल में समाया हासिदाना

निकाला राम घर से ज़ालिमाना

१५

लगाया दाग़ बज़्म-ए ख़ानदां को

जली ख़ुद भी जलाया शम’अ-दां को

बतन से गर तेरे पैदा न होता

जहां में आज मैं रुस्वा न होता

नहीं आती तुझे ग़ैरत जफ़ा-केश

के ख़ुद बेवा बनी ज़ालिम बद-अंदेश

१६

पिसर को भी यतीम अपने बनाया

मिटाया बाप और भाई का साया

पहन सकता नहीं मैं ताज-ए शाही

मुबारक राम को हो बादशाही

ग़रज़ कर के बहुत लानत मलामत

दिलाई ख़ूब मादर को नदामत

१७

कनीज़क को भी कर के ख़ूब ख़्वारी

कमर में शत्रुहन ने लात मारी

ब-फ़रमान-ए बशिश्ट-ए नुक्ता-बीं

किया सामां पै-ए तज्हीज़ ओ तक्फ़ीं

भरत ने फिर ब-रस्म-ए ख़ुस्रवाना

जलाई लाश-ए दस्रथ ग़मज़दाना

 

Click here for background and on any passage for word meanings and explanatory discussion. panDit chandr choR, retired head clerk, Office of the Magistrate, Ambala. His versified ramayan is undated and there is not a single word about the poet.
1
samant1-e nek-Khuu2 vaapas jab aaya
janaab3-e raam ki qissa4 sunaaya
shah-e dasrath mariiz5-e furqat6-e raam
paRa tha bistar-e zahmat7 pe naakaam8
taRapta tha misaal9-e murGh-e-bismil10
Ghariiq11-e bahr12-e Gham tha, saKht13 be-dil14    
1.charioteer 2.good natured 3.mister/sir/lord 4.story 5.afflicted 6.separation 7.sickness 8.helpless 9.example, like 10.slaughtered rooster 11.drowned 12.ocean 13.very much 14.without heart i.e. losing interest in everything
When the faithful charioteer returned (from having dropped off raam, sita and lakshman in the forest), he relayed the story of raam. King dasrath was lying helplessly on the sick bed. He was thrashing around like a rooster with its throat slit. He was drowning in an ocean of sorrow, showing no interest in anything.

2
Khabar1 sun kar samant2-e nukta-var3 se
hua giriya-kunaaN4 dard-e jigar5 se
hue naala-kunaaN6 ahl-e-mahal7 sub
vufoor-e-Gham8 se Khwaahaan9-e ajal10 sub
bashishT11-e raazdaaN12 ne aaKharash-kaar13
tasalli14 de ke samjhaaya shahr-yaar15    
1.news 2.charioteer 3.knowing fine points/details 4.cyring 5.liver/heart 6.wailing 7.palace residents 8.excess of sorrow 9.wishing for 10.death 11.name of rishi/scholar/saint 12.used here to mean confidant/advisor 13.finally 14.consoling 15.king
Hearing news from the charioteer in detail, dasrath began to cry with a painful heart. The palace family wailed and in excess of sorrow were desirous of death. Finally, bashishT, the wise counselor, consoled the king.

3
kaha dasrath ne kausalya1 se raani
firaaq2-e raam lega zindagaani
sravan3 ke baap ki ye bad-dua4 hai
isi meN bas hamaara Khaatama5 hai
talaash6-e sayd7 meN ek roz tha maiN
mila din bhar na kuchh aaKhir thaka maiN
1.wife of dasrath, mother of raam 2.separation 3.name of young boy that dasrath had accidentally killed 4.curse 5.end, death 6.search 7.prey, hunt
dasrath said to kausalya – O, queen, separation from raam will take my life. This is the curse of the father of sravan. In this, is my end. One day I was hunting for prey. Not finding anything all day long, I was tired.

4
ba-vaqt-e shaam baiTha ghaat meN tha
ke chashme1 par sravan paani ko aaya
suni aavaaz jab paani ki maiN ne
ye jaana sayd2 aaya paani piine
usi aavaaz par ek tiir maara
hua zaKhmi sravan zaahid3 qazaara4    
1.spring, river 2.prey, target 3.observant, religious, dutiful 4.suddenly, accidentaly
In the evening I sat watching when to the river came sravan to fetch water. When I heard that sound a shot an arrow at it thinking that a prey had come there to drink. Dutiful sravan got hit accidentally.

5
suna jab shor pahuNcha vahiiN par
sravan dekha paRa bismil1 zamiN par
jo puuchha kaun hai kya naam tera
kaha barhaman, sravan hai naam mera
ye sunte hi mere bas uR gaye hosh
kaha phir mu’aaf2 kar mujh ko Khata-posh3    
1.sacrificed 2.forgive 3.dressed in/covered by transgression/sin
When I heard that noise, I went there and saw sravan on the ground, dying. I asked his name and who he was. He said he was a brahman, sravan by name. I lost my senses when I heard this (killing a brahmin is the greatest sin of all!). I begged him to forgive me, that I was covered with sin.

6
kiya phir naam apna aashkaara1
tujhe afsos2 be-taqsiir3 maara
sravan bola ba-raah4-e mehrbaani5
maiN aaya tha yahaaN lene ko paani
mere maadar-pidar6 haiN koor7 dono
pyaase haiN bahut kamzor dono   
1.revealed 2.alas 3.guiltless, innocent 4.by way of 5.kindness, courtesy 6.mother and father 7.blind
Then I told him my name and said, alas, I have killed you by mistake, without intent. sravan said, by way of kindness – I came here to fetch water. My mother and father are both blind. They are both weak and thirsty.

7
unheN dasrath ba-raah1-e mehrbaani2
pila de ab zara ke jaa ke paani
mere seene se bhi shaah-e dil-afroz3
zara le khaiNch tiir-e jigar-doz4
nikaala tiir maiN ne mar gaya vo
mere sar par gunah5 ye dhar gaya vo  
1.by way of 2.kindness 3.heart brightening, giving happiness 4.heart piercing 5.crime
sravan speaking – O, dasrath, by way of kindness, take this water for them and pull this heart piercing arrow. I pulled it out and he died, making me guilty of this crime.

8
gaya phir paas un ke le ke paani
maiN laaya hun kaha ye leeje paani
vo bole kaun hai pahle bataa tu
hameN phir baad meN paani pila tu
sravan tu hai nahiN, ye hum ne jaana
maiN huN dasrath kaha aye mard-e-daana1   
1.wise man
I went to them, offering water. They asked, first tell us who you are and then give us water. You are not sravan, this much we know. I replied, O, wise man, I am dasrath.

9
bayaaN1 qissa2 kiya phir maiN ne saara
vo bole ho chuka jiina hamaara
kahaa ro kar hameN le chal vahaaN par
paRi hai laash3 sarvan ki jahaaN par
vahaaN aa kar unhoN ne bad-dua4 dii
ke haasil5 ho tujhe bhi naa-muraadi6    
1.narrate 2.story 3.corpse 4.curse 5.obtain, happen 6.non-fulfilment of desire
Then, I narrated the whole story. They said, this is the end of our lives. Weeping they asked me to take them where the body of sravan was lying. When we got there, they gave me this curse that I too not be able to get my desires fulfilled.

10
mare Gham meN pisar1 ke jis tarah hum
marega tu bhi dasrath paa2 yahi Gham
ye kah kar jaan di dono ne raani
meri bhi ho chuki bas zindagaani
suna kar ye hua Khaamosh dasrath
hua sur-pur3 meN jaa mehmaan4 dasrath   
1.son 2.paa kar, getting 3.svarg-pur, heaven
Just like we die grieving for our son, you will die too, O, dasrath getting the same sorrow. O, raani (kaushalya), saying this, they both died. That sealed my fate. Narrating this, dasrath went quiet and went to heaven, to be a guest there.

11
mare Gham meN pisar1 ke jis tarah hum
marega tu bhi dasrath paa2 yahi Gham
ye kah kar jaan di dono ne raani
meri bhi ho chuki bas zindagaani
suna kar ye hua Khaamosh dasrath
na dam3 maara hua be-hosh4 dasrath
nikal tan5 se gaii bas jaan6-e dasrath
hua sur-pur7 meN jaa mehmaan8 dasrath   
1.son 2.paa kar, getting 3.breath 4.losing senses 5.body 6.soul 7.svarg-pur, heaven 8.guest
Just like we die grieving for our son, you will die too, O, dasrath getting the same sorrow. O, raani (kaushalya), saying this, they both died. That sealed my fate. Narrating this, dasrath went quiet, stopped breathing and lost his senses. He went to heaven, to be a guest there.

12
hua baazaar-e giria1 garm2 do-chand3
vafaat4-e shauhar5 o banbaas6-e farzand7
bharat aur shatruhan naana ke ghar the
vo is mauqe8 se bilkul9 be-Khabar10 the
bashishT11-e baa-Khirad12 ne chaabukaana13
kiya kashmir ko qaasid14 ravaana15      
1.mourning 2.activity, commotion 3.double 4.passing 5.husband 6.exile 7.son 8.situation 9.entirely 10.unaware 11.name of rishi, advisor to dasrath 12.wise 13.promptly, like a whip 14.messenger 15.dispatched, sent
A commotion of double mourning ensued – the passing of the husband and the exile of the son. bharat and shatruhan were at their maternal grandfather’s palace in the himalayan mountains (kashmir), totally unaware of this situation. The wise vashishT promptly dispatched a messenger to inform them.

13
bharat aaye avadh meN haal1 dekha
ke ahl-e-shahr2 ko be-haal3 dekha
suni marg4-e pidar5, banbaas6-e raghubar7
hue mahv8-e fuGhaaN9 dono baraadar10
tashaddud11 gosh12 kar ke kaikayii ka
pareshaaN jo gaya ji bharat-ji ka   
1.condition 2.people of the city 3.out of themselves, uncontrollable sorrow 4.death 5.father 6.exile 7.another name of raam 8.engrossed 9.sorrowful wailing 10.brothers 11.oppression, cruelty, injustice 12.ears, hearing
bharat arrived and saw the condition of avadh. He saw all the people of the city in uncontrollable sorrow. They heard the story of the death of their father and exile of raam. Both brothers were engrossed in sorrowful wailing when they heard of the cruelty of kaikayii. bharat was puzzled down to his heart.

14
bharat ne kaikeyi ke paas jaa kar
misaal1 maar-e-pechaaN2 pech3 khaa kar
kaha maadar4 sitam-iijaad5 kar di
KhizaaN6 ban kar chaman barbaad7 kar di
ye kya dil meN samaaya haasidaana8
nikaala raam ghar se zaalimaana9    
1.like, similar to 2.coiled snake 3.coiling i.e. twisting and turning 4.mother 5.created/caused pain 6.drought 7.destroyed 8.jealousy 9.cruelly
Going to kaikeyi bharat thrashed about in sorrow like a coiled snake and said, O, mother you have caused great pain. Like a drought you have destroyed the garden. What kind of jealousy came into your heart. Your threw raam out of the house in cruelty.

15
lagaaya daaGh bazm-e-KhaandaaN1 ko
jali Khud bhi jalaaya sham’a-daaN2 ko
batan3 se tere gar paida na hota
jahaaN4 meN aaj maiN rusvaa5 na hota
nahiN aati tujhe Ghairat6 jafaa-kesh7
keh Khud bevaa8 bani zaalim bad-andesh9    
1.family group 2.candle holder 3.womb 4.world 5.shamed, disreputed 6.shame 7.cruel-natured 8.widow 9.bad omen
You brought a stain on the family group. You got burnt and burned the candle holder too. Had I not been born of your womb, I would not have been shamed like this in the world. Are you not ashamed of your cruel nature. You yourself are widowed, O, harbinger of bad omen.

16
pisar1 ko bhi yateem2 apne banaaya
miTaaya baap aur bhaaii ka saaya
pahan sakta nahiN maiN taaj-e shaahi
mubarak raam ko ho baadshaahi
Gharaz3 kar bahut l’aanat4 malaamat5
dilaaii Khoob6 maadar7 ko nadaamat8   
1.son 2.orphan 3.in summary 4.curse 5.blame 6.much 7.mother 8.regret
You orphaned your own son and erased the protection of father and brother. I cannot wear the royal crown. Monarchy rightfully belongs to raam. In summary after much blaming and cursing he caused his mother to regret greatly.

17
kaneezak1 ko bhi kar ke Khoob Khwaari2
kamar par shatruhan ne laat maari
ba-farmaan3-e bashishT4-e nukta-biiN5
kiya saamaaN pai6-e tajheez7 o takfiiN8
bharat ne phir ba-rasm9-e Khusravaana10
jalaaii laash11-e dasrath Ghamzadaana12  
1.derogatory version of ‘kaneez’-slave woman 2.blame 3.by orders of 4.rishi vashisht 5.discerning, wise 6.for 7.funeral 8.shroud 9.traditions 10.royal 11.corpse 12.sorrowfully
shatruhan too, after getting angry with the slave woman kicked her in the back. By orders of the wise vashisT, bharat made arrangements for the funeral and shroud. Following royal traditions, he sorrowfully lit the funeral pyre for the body of dasrath.

panDit chandr choR, retired head clerk, Office of the Magistrate, Ambala.  His versified ramayan is undated and there is not a single word about the poet.
1
samant1-e nek-Khuu2 vaapas jab aaya
janaab3-e raam ki qissa4 sunaaya
shah-e dasrath mariiz5-e furqat6-e raam
paRa tha bistar-e zahmat7 pe naakaam8
taRapta tha misaal9-e murGh-e-bismil10
Ghariiq11-e bahr12-e Gham tha, saKht13 be-dil14

1.charioteer 2.good natured 3.mister/sir/lord 4.story 5.afflicted 6.separation 7.sickness 8.helpless 9.example, like 10.slaughtered rooster 11.drowned 12.ocean 13.very much 14.without heart i.e. losing interest in everything

When the faithful charioteer returned (from having dropped off raam, sita and lakshman in the forest), he relayed the story of raam.  King dasrath was lying helplessly on the sick bed.  He was thrashing around like a rooster with its throat slit.  He was drowning in an ocean of sorrow, showing no interest in anything.
2
Khabar1 sun kar samant2-e nukta-var3 se
hua giriya-kunaaN4 dard-e jigar5 se
hue naala-kunaaN6 ahl-e-mahal7 sub
vufoor-e-Gham8 se Khwaahaan9-e ajal10 sub
bashishT11-e raazdaaN12 ne aaKharash-kaar13
tasalli14 de ke samjhaaya shahr-yaar15

1.news 2.charioteer 3.knowing fine points/details 4.cyring 5.liver/heart 6.wailing 7.palace residents 8.excess of sorrow 9.wishing for 10.death 11.name of rishi/scholar/saint 12.used here to mean confidant/advisor 13.finally 14.consoling 15.king

Hearing news from the charioteer in detail, dasrath began to cry with a painful heart.  The palace family wailed and in excess of sorrow were desirous of death.  Finally, bashishT, the wise counselor, consoled the king.
3
kaha dasrath ne kausalya1 se raani
firaaq2-e raam lega zindagaani
sravan3 ke baap ki ye bad-dua4 hai
isi meN bas hamaara Khaatama5 hai
talaash6-e sayd7 meN ek roz tha maiN
mila din bhar na kuchh aaKhir thaka maiN

1.wife of dasrath, mother of raam 2.separation 3.name of young boy that dasrath had accidentally killed 4.curse 5.end, death 6.search 7.prey, hunt

dasrath said to kausalya – O, queen, separation from raam will take my life.  This is the curse of the father of sravan.  In this, is my end.  One day I was hunting for prey.  Not finding anything all day long, I was tired.
4
ba-vaqt-e shaam baiTha ghaat meN tha
ke chashme1 par sravan paani ko aaya
suni aavaaz jab paani ki maiN ne
ye jaana sayd2 aaya paani piine
usi aavaaz par ek tiir maara
hua zaKhmi sravan zaahid3 qazaara4

1.spring, river 2.prey, target 3.observant, religious, dutiful 4.suddenly, accidentaly

In the evening I sat watching when to the river came sravan to fetch water.  When I heard that sound a shot an arrow at it thinking that a prey had come there to drink.  Dutiful sravan got hit accidentally.
5
suna jab shor pahuNcha vahiiN par
sravan dekha paRa bismil1 zamiN par
jo puuchha kaun hai kya naam tera
kaha barhaman, sravan hai naam mera
ye sunte hi mere bas uR gaye hosh
kaha phir mu’aaf2 kar mujh ko Khata-posh3

1.sacrificed 2.forgive 3.dressed in/covered by transgression/sin

When I heard that noise, I went there and saw sravan on the ground, dying.  I asked his name and who he was.  He said he was a brahman, sravan by name.  I lost my senses when I heard this (killing a brahmin is the greatest sin of all!).  I begged him to forgive me, that I was covered with sin.
6
kiya phir naam apna aashkaara1
tujhe afsos2 be-taqsiir3 maara
sravan bola ba-raah4-e mehrbaani5
maiN aaya tha yahaaN lene ko paani
mere maadar-pidar6 haiN koor7 dono
pyaase haiN bahut kamzor dono

1.revealed 2.alas 3.guiltless, innocent 4.by way of 5.kindness, courtesy 6.mother and father 7.blind

Then I told him my name and said, alas, I have killed you by mistake, without intent.  sravan said, by way of kindness – I came here to fetch water.  My mother and father are both blind.  They are both weak and thirsty.
7
unheN dasrath ba-raah1-e mehrbaani2
pila de ab zara ke jaa ke paani
mere seene se bhi shaah-e dil-afroz3
zara le khaiNch tiir-e jigar-doz4
nikaala tiir maiN ne mar gaya vo
mere sar par gunah5 ye dhar gaya vo

1.by way of 2.kindness 3.heart brightening, giving happiness 4.heart piercing 5.crime

sravan speaking – O, dasrath, by way of kindness, take this water for them and pull this heart piercing arrow.  I pulled it out and he died, making me guilty of this crime.
8
gaya phir paas un ke le ke paani
maiN laaya hun kaha ye leeje paani
vo bole kaun hai pahle bataa tu
hameN phir baad meN paani pila tu
sravan tu hai nahiN, ye hum ne jaana
maiN huN dasrath kaha aye mard-e-daana1

1.wise man

I went to them, offering water.  They asked, first tell us who you are and then give us water.  You are not sravan, this much we know.  I replied, O, wise man, I am dasrath.
9
bayaaN1 qissa2 kiya phir maiN ne saara
vo bole ho chuka jiina hamaara
kahaa ro kar hameN le chal vahaaN par
paRi hai laash3 sarvan ki jahaaN par
vahaaN aa kar unhoN ne bad-dua4 dii
ke haasil5 ho tujhe bhi naa-muraadi6

1.narrate 2.story 3.corpse 4.curse 5.obtain, happen 6.non-fulfilment of desire

Then, I narrated the whole story.  They said, this is the end of our lives.  Weeping they asked me to take them where the body of sravan was lying.  When we got there, they gave me this curse that I too not be able to get my desires fulfilled.
10
mare Gham meN pisar1 ke jis tarah hum
marega tu bhi dasrath paa2 yahi Gham
ye kah kar jaan di dono ne raani
meri bhi ho chuki bas zindagaani
suna kar ye hua Khaamosh dasrath
na dam3 maara hua be-hosh4 dasrath
nikal tan5 se gaii bas jaan6-e dasrath
hua sur-pur7 meN jaa mehmaan8 dasrath

1.son 2.paa kar, getting 3.breath 4.losing senses 5.body 6.soul 7.svarg-pur, heaven 8.guest

Just like we die grieving for our son, you will die too, O, dasrath getting the same sorrow.  O, raani (kaushalya), saying this, they both died.  That sealed my fate.  Narrating this, dasrath went quiet, stopped breathing and lost his senses.  He went to heaven, to be a guest there.
11
hua baazaar-e giria1 garm2 do-chand3
vafaat4-e shauhar5 o banbaas6-e farzand7
bharat aur shatruhan naana ke ghar the
vo is mauqe8 se bilkul9 be-Khabar10 the
bashishT11-e baa-Khirad12 ne chaabukaana13
kiya kashmir ko qaasid14 ravaana15

1.mourning 2.activity, commotion 3.double 4.passing 5.husband 6.exile 7.son 8.situation 9.entirely 10.unaware 11.name of rishi, advisor to dasrath 12.wise 13.promptly, like a whip 14.messenger 15.dispatched, sent

A commotion of double mourning ensued – the passing of the husband and the exile of the son.  bharat and shatruhan were at their maternal grandfather’s palace in the himalayan mountains (kashmir), totally unaware of this situation.  The wise vashishT promptly dispatched a messenger to inform them.
12
bharat aaye avadh meN haal1 dekha
ke ahl-e-shahr2 ko be-haal3 dekha
suni marg4-e pidar5, banbaas6-e raghubar7
hue mahv8-e fuGhaaN9 dono baraadar10
tashaddud11 gosh12 kar ke kaikayii ka
pareshaaN jo gaya ji bharat-ji ka

1.condition 2.people of the city 3.out of themselves, uncontrollable sorrow 4.death 5.father 6.exile 7.another name of raam 8.engrossed 9.sorrowful wailing 10.brothers 11.oppression, cruelty, injustice 12.ears, hearing

bharat arrived and saw the condition of avadh.  He saw all the people of the city in uncontrollable sorrow.  They heard the story of the death of their father and exile of raam.  Both brothers were engrossed in sorrowful wailing when they heard of the cruelty of kaikayii.  bharat was puzzled down to his heart.
13
vo rote piiTte afsos1 karte
hue daakhil2 mahal meN saaNs-bharte3
kaushalya ne gale un ko lagaaya
tasalli4 de ke pahlu5 meN biThaaya
sunaaii daastaan6-e Gham ba-zaari7
na tha chaara8 magar juz9 ashk-baari10

1.sorrow 2.enter 3.deep breath, out of breath 4.console 5.side, lap 6.story 7.with crying 8.cure 9.except for 10.shedding tears

In sorrow, crying and beating their chests, they entered the palace, out of breath.  kaushalya embraced them and consoling, seated them beside her.  She related the whole story sorrowfully.  There was nothing else to do, except shedding tears.
14
bharat ne kaikeyi ke paas jaa kar
misaal1 maar-e-pechaaN2 pech3 khaa kar
kaha maadar4 sitam-iijaad5 kar di
KhizaaN6 ban kar chaman barbaad7 kar di
ye kya dil meN samaaya haasidaana8
nikaala raam ghar se zaalimaana9

1.like, similar to 2.coiled snake 3.coiling i.e. twisting and turning 4.mother 5.created/caused pain 6.drought 7.destroyed 8.jealousy 9.cruelly

Going to kaikeyi bharat thrashed about in sorrow like a coiled snake and said, O, mother you have caused great pain.  Like a drought you have destroyed the garden.  What kind of jealousy came into your heart.  Your threw raam out of the house in cruelty.
15
lagaaya daaGh bazm-e-KhaandaaN1 ko
jali Khud bhi jalaaya sham’a-daaN2 ko
batan3 se tere gar paida na hota
jahaaN4 meN aaj maiN rusvaa5 na hota
nahiN aati tujhe Ghairat6 jafaa-kesh7
keh Khud bevaa8 bani zaalim bad-andesh9

1.family group 2.candle holder 3.womb 4.world 5.shamed, disreputed 6.shame 7.cruel-natured 8.widow 9.bad omen

You brought a stain on the family group.  You got burnt and burned the candle holder too.  Had I not been born of your womb, I would not have been shamed like this in the world.  Are you not ashamed of your cruel nature.  You yourself are widowed, O, harbinger of bad omen.
16
pisar1 ko bhi yateem2 apne banaaya
miTaaya baap aur bhaaii ka saaya
pahan sakta nahiN maiN taaj-e shaahi
mubarak raam ko ho baadshaahi
Gharaz3 kar bahut l’aanat4 malaamat5
dilaaii Khoob6 maadar7 ko nadaamat8

1.son 2.orphan 3.in summary 4.curse 5.blame 6.much 7.mother 8.regret

You orphaned your own son and erased the protection of father and brother.  I cannot wear the royal crown.  Monarchy rightfully belongs to raam.  In summary after much blaming and cursing he caused his mother to regret greatly.
17
kaneezak1 ko bhi kar ke Khoob Khwaari2
kamar par shatruhan ne laat maari
ba-farmaan3-e bashishT4-e nukta-biiN5
kiya saamaaN pai6-e tajheez7 o takfiiN8
bharat ne phir ba-rasm9-e Khusravaana10
jalaaii laash11-e dasrath Ghamzadaana12

1.derogatory version of ‘kaneez’-slave woman 2.blame 3.by orders of 4.rishi vashisht 5.discerning, wise 6.for 7.funeral 8.shroud 9.traditions 10.royal 11.corpse 12.sorrowfully

shatruhan too, after getting angry with the slave woman kicked her in the back.  By orders of the wise vashisT, bharat made arrangements for the funeral and shroud.  Following royal traditions, he sorrowfully lit the funeral pyre for the body of dasrath.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *