19-laNka vijay-na-m’aaloom

For word meanings and explanatory discussion in English click on the “Roman” or “Notes” tab.  The “Introduction” tab offers a of the whole series of posts that constitute a patchy reconstruction of the ramayan.

The ramayan has fascinated minds in India and worldwide for millennia, for the beauty of its literary composition, for its fascinating story content as well as for faith and reverence.  It is not surprising then that the Ramayan has been translated not only into all major languages, but also into unexpected ones like Polish, Norwegian and Swedish.  What is surprising is that there are more than twice as many poetic translations/trans-compositions of the ramayan in urdu as there are of the qur’aan and that the ramayan was translated into urdu even before the qur’aan was.

A book “urdu meN hindu dharm” (Hindu Religion in Urdu), Ajai Malviya,  written in Urdu, catalogues in detail urdu translations of the vedas (66), ramayan (103), mahabharat (38), bhagwad gita (83), puranas (44), manu smriti (4), biography of vashisht (14) and miscellaneous other religious compositions (472) spanning about 200 years of publications.

Why has this significant piece of literature been relegated to a neglected and ignored heap of disdain?  This needs to be corrected.  The sheer number and the high poetic and linguistic quality of this literature surprised me as I worked to string together representative parts of urdu nazm/poems of ramayan by different poets, like pearls strung in a necklace, into a near complete story.

A close reading of urdu ramayan translations offers some fascinating lessons about mingling of cultures in India, the origins and “ownership” of Urdu language, the power of the pen across languages and cultures and the universality of basic human emotions.  One is struck deeply by the acceptance and seamless adoption of multiple religious traditions as indicated by the observation that many ramayan renderings (even some by hindu poets) start with “bismillah ir-rahman ir-rahim” and a “hamd” (an ode and/or expression of gratitude to god).  Since god, like language, has no religion, these odes/hamd/vandana are entirely secular/universal. 

It is highly contentious to say that urdu is a muslim language (as if a language has religion) or even to say that urdu is a language of muslims.  There are large numbers of muslims (Bengal, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka) who do not know/speak urdu.  One of the important reasons that East Pakistan separated and declared baNgladesh was that it did not want urdu to be imposed on it in preference to its own language, beNgali.

Of the 100 or so translations/re-compositions of the ramayan in urdu more than 80 were written/composed by hindu writers/poets.  In most, if not all cases the poets were orthodox, believing, practicing hindus.  Why were they writing the ramayan in urdu?  I speculate that there must have been a large section of literate hindu population who considered Urdu their primary language, not because of political favours but because it was naturally their language.  Some of the poets who re-composed tulsidas’ ramcharitmanas suggest that because it was written in “bhaaka or bhaasha” and not easily available to everyone.  Therefore, they translated/re-composed it in urdu, perhaps implying that this is more comprehensible than “bhaaka/bhaasha”.  Apparently by the 1800s neither avadhi nor braj bhaasha were considered a common language.  To show the role urdu played in devotional traditions of north Indian hindus, I paraphrase from a book by bishweshwar parshad munavvar, himself a poet and son of dwaarka parshad ufaq (another poet of renown, who composed a full urdu ramayan).  He writes that, because of the effort of munshi jagannath Khushtar (1809-1864) and munshi shankar dayal farhat (1843-1904) in translating hindu religious texts into urdu, the teachings of the ramayan saved the hindu religion from further decline.  Before we run away with the image of an alien force coming down to “save” hinduism, it might be useful put this quote in perspective.  We have to make an effort to understand that what he might have meant is that there was a substantial community of hindus to whom religious texts were not comprehensible because they were written either in sanskrit or avadhi while their primary language of learning was urdu.  Thus, these translations made religious texts available to them.

Surely these poets, most of whom were believing and observant hindus must have had an audience/readership of similarly devout believers, who revered the composition itself and must have had the linguistic finesse to enjoy its literary excellence.  It draws a picture of a large section of literate hindu population who considered urdu their primary language, not because of political favours but because it was naturally their language.  We do not have any data taken by ‘pollsters’ to show that this was the case.  But we can make some speculative estimates by numbers of publications and the content of those publications.  I am unable to compile a scholarly accounting of such magazines and the numerous contributions of urdu writers.  Suffice it to present to you names of some daily, weekly or monthly publications, “sanaatan dharm pracharak”, “tej”, “aarya veer”, “veer India”, “arya Gazette”, “bande maataram”, “jain sansaar”, “sher-e hind”, “raajput Gazette” and even “agarwal hiteshi” that were published in urdu, some as late as the 1940s.  All had editors and contributors who were hindu (at least by name).

The compositions and publications of urdu ramayan cover roughly 1825-1980.  These poets also wrote secular/romantic Ghazal, nazm as well as other devotional pieces to krishn, lakshmi and many others.  The question needs to be asked, but remains unanswered because of lack of documentary evidence, whether these poets, steeped in urdu poetic culture, also recited parts of the ramayan in the mushaa’era that they participated in.  What was the composition of the audience?  They also composed bhajans in urdu.  Were these bhajans sung in religious gatherings.  We know that bhajans composed by syed ibrahim ras Khan (1548-1628) in braj bhaasha, proto-urdu, are sung to this day in prayer meetings.  There is every reason to believe that urdu compositions of ramayan were also recited, heard and enjoyed in public gatherings whether they may be called mushaa’era or not.

Well over twenty samples from urdu ramayan composed by different poets over nearly two centuries have been selected in story sequence and strung together like the beads of a tasbiih/jap-mala.  This study of the urdu ramayan shows the versatility, beauty and power of urdu, its ownership by a wide range of communities of India, and the easy and seamless acceptance, adoption and cross pollination of one another’s traditions by all faith systems.  Alas, somewhere along the way, we have lost this unique syncretic tradition.  It is my fervent hope that such studies will contribute a little to its revival.

 

لنکا وِجئے ۔ نامعلوم

۱

جب دَل کے دَل وہ فوج کے ساگر پہ چھا گئے

بھائی کو چھوڑ اپنے بھبیکن بھی آ گئے

جو داس ہو کے رام کے، من سب کے بھا گئے

اور رام رازدار کو لنکا کے پا گئے

تب فکر یہ ہوئی پئے آغازِ کارزار

ساگر سے اِن دَلوں کا اب ہو کِس طرح اُتار

۲

یہ سوچ اور جملہ اراکیں کو کر طلب

بٹھلا کے پاس ہو کے مخاطب بہ خندہ لب

فرمایا یوں بتائیے کر کے صلاح سب

ساگر سے پار اُترنے کی تدبیر کیا ہے اب

یہ سُن کے کر کے مشورہ سب نے کہا حضور

تیار ہونا چاہئیے اِک پُل پئے عبور

۳

جس نے کہ آبرو تھی بڑھائی سمُدر کی

اب اُس سے پار ہونے کی اُس کو ہی فکر تھی

ہر روپ رکھ سمجھ کے ضروری و لازمی

پُل باندھنے کی بھکت بھبیکن سے رائے لی

بعد اِس کے جامونت کو بلوا کے یہ کہا

پُل باندھ ساری فوج کو دو پار اب لگا

۴

پھر جامونت جی نے نل و نیل کو بلا

فوراً ہی حکم باندھنے پُل کا دیا سُنا

اور یہ کہا کہ مِل کے سب اور جان و تن لگا

یہ کام جلد کر سری رگھوبر کو دو دکھا

ہوگا مقام رات کا ساگر سے پار ہو

ایسا نہ ہو کہ دیر ہو اور اِنتظار ہو

۵

سُن کر یہ حکمِ خاص نل و نیل اٹپٹے

کُپ بھال لے کے ساتھ میں فوراً ہی جا ڈٹے

ڈٹتے ہی اُن کے مان سمندر کے سب گھٹے

اور وہ ڈٹے کچھ ایسے کہ پُل باندھ کر ہٹے

لا کر اِدھر اُدھر سے پہاڑؤں کو کاٹ کر

یکدم میں پُل بنایا سمندر کو پاٹ کر

 

پُل تیّار ہونے کے بعد حملہ کا حکم ہوا ۔۔۔

۶

سب افسروں نے حکم یہ سُنتے ہی برملا

رگھوبر چرن کمل میں چت اپنا لگا لگا

جے جے کے نعرے مار کے شستر لئے اُٹھا

تیار ہونے فوج کا باجا دیا بجا

جب آئی فوج سج کے تو پھر چھانٹ چھانٹ کر

چار حصہ کر لئے اُس سب کے بانٹ کر

۷

ایک ایک جز ہر ایک درِ لنک پر ڈٹا

چاروں طرف سے گھیر لیا چھا گئی گھٹا

دیکھ اُس بِکٹ گھٹا کو جِگر آسماں پھٹا

راون نے غُل سُنا تو کہا اُس نے چڑھ اٹا

دیکھو یہ بندروں کی ڈھٹائی کہ آن کر

کیا غُل مچا رہے ہیں میرا بل نہ جان کر

۸

یاں فوج بانروں کی تھی جانباز و بے عذر

اور فوجِ رکھشسان تھی خوں خوار سب اُدھر

دونوں طرف کی فوج نے یکدم سجل سُدھر

حملہ کیا تو کی نہ کسی نے بھی در گذر

میدانِ جنگ میں تہ و بالا مچا دیا

گویا نمونہ فتنۂ محشر دکھا دیا

۹

اِس سمت فوج رام کی تن توڑ کر لڑی

تھی اُس طرف سپاہ نشا چر ڈٹی کھڑی

دونوں طرف سے تیر کی بوچھار جب پڑی

اور برچھیوں کی رن میں انی سے انی لڑی

تو فوجِ راکچھشوں میں کروڑوں ہی مر گئے

بانر بھی لاکھوں جامِ اجل نوش کر گئے

 

جنگ کے کئی لمبے لمبے بیان ہیں ۔ نامور جنگجو کی جنگ کا تفصیلی بیان ہے ۔ آگے چلیں ۔

لکشمن کو تیر لگا ہے اور اُن کی جان بچانے کے لئے جڑی بوٹی لانے کے لئے ہنوماں کو بھجوایا گیا ۔

۱۰

پہچان یہ بتائی کہ قدرت کے نور سے

سر سبز خوش نما ہے چمکتی ہے دور سے

سنجویونی ہے نام گُنوں کے ظہور سے

لاویں اُسے اُکھاڑ سمجھ کر شعور سے

ایسا نہ ہو کہ جا کے وہاں خالی ہاتھ آئیں

یا اور کوئی دوسری بُوٹی اُکھاڑ لائیں

۱۱

چل کر ابھی یہ پہونچے نہ تھے اُس پہاڑ پر

پاکر کسی سے جانے کی اُن کے وہاں خبر

راون نے پڑھ بہ غور طلسمات کا سحر

ہنوماں پہلوان کے پہونچھے سے پیشتر

سب بوٹیوں کو شکل میں یکساں بنا دیا

جادو کی روشنی سے اُنہیں جگمگا دیا

 

جنگ کا آخری مرحلہ ۔ رام اور راون کی جنگ ۔

۱۲

مشرق میں آئے خُسروِ خاور کے جب قدوم

اور ہو گیا فلک سے ہَوا لشکرِ نجوم

یعنی صبح ہوئی تو یہاں فوج بالعموم

تیار ہو کے چڑھ گئے لنکا پہ جھوم جھوم

چاروں طرف سے گھیر کے ڈنکا بجا دیا

گھور اور گرج کے شورِ قیامت مچا دیا

۱۳

راون سُن اِس خبر کو خبردار ہو گیا

ہوش اُڑ رہے تھے جس کے وہ ہوشیار ہو گیا

فوراً ہی اُٹھ لڑائی کو تیار ہو گیا

رتھ پر سوار اپنے وہ خونخوار ہو گیا

فوجِ نشاچران بھی سج سج کے آ گئی

کالی گھٹا گھمنڈ کی ہر سمت چھا گئی

۱۴

جب راون اپنی ساری کرامات کھو چکا

اور اپنی زندگانی سے بھی ہاتھ دھو چکا

میدان صاف بھوت پشاچوں سے ہو چکا

اور دیوتوں کا طالع تقدیر سو چکا

تو پھر وہ ایک لخت پڑا ٹوٹ رام پر

واں ہاہا کار مچ گیا دیوؤں کے دھام پر

۱۵

لیکن مرا نہ اور بُھجا سیس اُس کے سب

پھر ہو گئے تو رام نے حیران ہو کے اب

سب جان حال موت کا اور ہو کے خندہ لب

اکتیس تیر گن کے کماں کھینچ کھینچ جب

مارے جو تاک تاک کے تو اُس کے ایک ساتھ

پھر کٹ گرے زمین پہ سب سیس اور ہاتھ

लंका विजय – ना-मा’लूम

जब दल के दल वो फ़ौज के सागर पे छा गये

भाई को छोढ अपने भिबीकन भी आ गये

जो दास हो के राम के मन सब के भा गये

और राम राज़्दार को लंका के पा गये

तब फ़िक्र ये हुई पय-ए आग़ाज़-ए कारज़ार

सागर से इन दलौं का अब हो किस तरह उतार

ये सोच और जुम्ला अराकीं को कर तलब

बिठ्ला के पास हो के मुख़ातब ब ख़ंदा-लब

फ़रमाया यूं बताईये कर के सलाह सब

सागर से पार उतरने कि तद्बीर क्या है अब

ये सुन के कर के मश्वरा सब ने कहा हुज़ूर

तय्यार होना चाहिये एक पुल पय-ए उबूर

जिस ने के आब्रू थी बढ़ाई समुद्र की

अब उस से पार होने कि उस को हि फ़िक्र थी

हर रूप रख समझ के ज़रूरी ओ लाज़िमी

पुल बांधने की भक्त भिबीकन से राए ली

बाद इस के जामवंत को बुल्वा के ये कहा

पुल बांध सारी फ़ौज को दो पार अब लगा

फिर जामवंत जी ने नल ओ नील को बुला

फ़ौरन हि हुक्म बांधने पुल का दिया सुना

और ये कहा के मिल के सब और जान ओ तन लगा

ये काम जल्द कर स्री रघुबर को दो दिखा

होगा मक़ाम रात का सागर से पार हो

ऐसा न हो के देर हो और इंतेज़ार हो

सुन कर ये हुक्म-ए ख़ास नल ओ नील अटपटे

कुप भाल ले के साथ में फ़ौरन हि जा डटे

डटते हि उन के मान समंदर के सब घटे

और वो डटे कुछ ऐसे के पुल बांध कर हटे

ला कर इधर उधर से पहाढौं को काट कर

यक्दम में पुल बनाया समंदर को पाट कर

 

पुल तय्यार होने के बाद हमले का हुक्म हुआ।

सब अफ़्सरौं ने हुक्म ये सुन्ते ही बरमला

रघुबर चरन कमल में चित अपना लगा लगा

जय जय के ना’रे मार के शस्तर लिये उठा

तय्यार होने फ़ौज का बाजा दिया बजा

जब आई फ़ौज सज के तो फिर छांट छांट कर

चार हिस्से कर लिये उस सब के बांट कर

एक एक जुज़ हर एक दर-ए लंक पर डटा

चारौं तरफ़ से घेर लिया छा गई घटा

देख उस बिकट घटा को जिगर-ए आस्मां फटा

रावन ने ग़ुल सुना जो कहा उस ने चढ़ अटा

देखो ये बंदरौं कि ढटाई के आन कर

क्या ग़ुल मचा रहे हैं मेरा बल न जान कर

यां फ़ौज बानरौं कि थी जांबाज़ ओ बे-उज़र

और फ़ौज-ए रख्शसान थी ख़ूंख़्वार सब उधर

दोनों तरफ़ की फ़ौज ने यक्दम सजल सुधर

हम्ला किया तो की न किसी ने भी दरगुज़र

मैदान-ए जंग में तह-ओ-बाला मचा दिया

गोया नमूना फ़ित्ना-ए महशर दिखा दिया

इस सम्त फ़ौज राम की तन तोढ कर लढी

थी उस तरफ़ सिपाह-ए नशाचर डटी खढी

दोनों तरफ़ से तीर की बोछार जब पढी

और बर्छियौं कि रन में अनी से अनी लढी

तो फ़ौज-ए राख्चशौं में करोढों हि मर गये

बानर भी लाखौं जाम-ए अजल नोश कर गये

 

जंग के कई लम्बे लम्बे बयान हैं। नामवर जंगजू की जंग का तफ़्सीली बयान है। आगे चलें।

लक्शमन को तीर लगा है और उन की जान बचाने के लिये जढी बूटी लाने हनुमान को भिज्वाया गया।

१०

पहचान ये बताई के क़ुद्रत के नूर से

सर-सब्ज़ ख़ुशनुमा है चमकती है दूर से

संजीवनी है नाम गुनौं के ज़हूर से

लावें उसे उखाढ समझ कर श’ऊर से

ऐसा न हो के जा के वहां ख़ाली हाथ आएं

या और कोई दूस्री बूटी उखाढ लाएं

११

चल कर अभी ये पहुंचे न थे उस पहाढ पर

पा कर किसी से जाने कि उन के वहां ख़बर

रावन ने पढ़ ब-ग़ौर तिलिस्मात का सहर

हनुमान पहल्वां के पहुंचने से पेश्तर

सब बूटियौं को शक्ल में यक्सां बना दिया

जादू कि रौशनी से उन्हें जगमगा दिया

 

जंग का आख़री मरहला। राम और रावन की जंग।

१२

मश्रिक़ में आये ख़ुस्रव-ए ख़ावर के जब क़ुदूम

और हो गया फ़लक से हवा लश्कर-ए नुजूम

या’नी सुबह हुई तो यहां फ़ौज बिल-उमुम

तय्यार हो के चढ़ गये लंका पे झूम झूम

चारौं तरफ़ से घेर के डंका बजा दिया

घोर और गरज के शोर-ए क़यामत मचा दिया

१३

रावन सुन इस ख़बर को ख़बरदार हो गया

होश उढ रहे थे जिस के वो होश्यार हो गया

फ़ौरन हि उठ लढाई को तय्यार हो गया

रथ पर सवार अपने वो ख़ूंख़्वार हो गया

फ़ौज-ए नशाचरान भि सज सज के आ गई

काली घटा घमंड कि हर सम्त छा गई

१४

जब रावन अपनी सारी करामात खो चुका

और अपनी ज़िंदगानी से भी हाथ धो चुका

मैदान साफ़ भूत पशाचौं से हो चुका

और देवतौं का ताला’-ए तक़्दीर सो चुका

तो फिर वो एक-लख़्त पढा टूट राम पर

वां हाहाकार मच गया देवौं के धाम पर

१५

लैकिन मरा न और भुजा सीस उस के सब

फिर हो गये तो राम ने हैरान हो के अब

सब जान हाल मौत का और हो के ख़ंदा लब

एक्तीस तीर गिन के कमां खींच खींच जब

मारे जो ताक ताक के तो उस के एक साथ

फिर कट गिरे ज़मीन पे सब सीस और हाथ

 

Click here for background and on any passage for word meanings and explanatory discussion. na-ma’loom/unknown poet. I could not find a date of publication either nor could I find when/where/how a print or manuscript was found. In a similar way there was a faarsi handwritten manuscript by harballabh seTh that someone found among their family papers and published it. There may be quite a few such compositions. This selection describes the battle to kill raavan. There are many details of individual duels and major battles. Only an extremely small sample is presented here.

Building a bridge.

1
jab dal1 ke dal vo fauj ke saagar pe chhaa gaye
bhaaii ko chhoR apne bhibeekan2 bhi aa gaye
jo daas3 ho ke raam ke, man sub ke bhaa gaye
aur raam raazdaar4 ko laNka ke paa gaye
tab fikr5 ye hui pae6-e aaGhaaz7-e kaarzaar8
saagar se in daloN ki ab ho kis tarah utaar    
1.squad 2.raavan’s brother 3.slave, devotee 4.confidant, informant 5.worry, concern 6.intent, purpose 7.beginning 8.war, attack
All the squads were gathered hovering over the ocean. bhibeekan, raavan’s brother, had left him and come over to raam. By becoming a devotee of raam, he won the hearts of all and raam acquired an informant of the inner secrets of laNka. Now the concern was that to start the attack, how were they going to get all these squads of the army across the ocean.

2
ye soch aur jumla1 araakiN2 ko kar talab3
biThla ke paas ho ke muKhaatab4 ba-Khanda-lab5
farmaaya6 yuN bataaiye kar ke salaah7 sub
saagar se paar utarne ki tadbeer8 kya hai ab
ye sun ke kar ke mashvara9 sub ne kaha huzoor
tayyar10 hona chaahiye ek pul pae11-e uboor12    
1.total, all 2.members 3.summon 4.address 5.smile 6.announce 7.consultation 8.method, plan 9.suggestion 10.ready 11.intention, purpose 12.across
Thinking thus, he (raam) summoned all his partners, addressing them with a smile he announced that they consult with each other and come up with a plan to cross the ocean. Hearing this, they all took suggestions and said, ‘Lord, it is necessary to prepare/construct a bridge to get across’.

3
jis ne ke aabru1 thi baRhaaii samudr2 ki
ab us se paar hone ki us ko hi fikr3 thi
har roop rakh samajh ke zaroori-o-laazimi4
pul baandhne ki bhakt bhibeekan5 se raaye6 li
baad is ke jaamvant7 ko bulva ke ye kaha
pul baandh saari fauj ko do paar ab laga   
1.dignity 2.ocean 3.worry 4.necessary and essential 5.devotee bhibeekan (brother of raavan) 6.suggention 7.leader of the army of bears
This has reference to the story of creation when vishnu upheld the dignity of the ocean. Ironically, raam who was a avataar of vishnu was now worried about crossing the same ocean. Understanding all requirements of behaviour and consideration as necessary, he consulted bhibeekan (vibheeshan) and calling jaamvant asked him to build a bridge and get the whole army across.

4
phir jaamvant1 ji ne nal2 o neel2 ko bula
fauran3 hi hukm baandhne pul ka diya suna
aur ye kaha ke mil ke sub aur jaan-o-tan4 laga
ye kaam jald5 kar sri raghubar6 ko do dikha
hoga maqaam7 raat ka saagar se paar ho
aisa na ho ke dayr ho aur intezaar8 ho    
1.king of the bears 2.two brothers who were skilled at bridge building 3.immediately 4.heart and soul 5.soon 6.another name of raam 7.place/time 8.wait
Then jaamvant called nal and neel ordered them to immediately build a bridge and said that they should apply their hearts and soul to the task. They should complete the project soon and show it to raam. By the time of nightfall we should be able to cross the sea. Let there be no delay, let us not have to wait.

5
sun kar ye hukm-e-Khaas1 nal o neel aTpaTe2
kup3 bhaal4 le ke saath meN fauran5 hi jaa DaTe6
DaTte hi un ke, maan7 samandar ke sub ghaTe
aur vo DaTe kuchh aise ke pul baandh kar haTe
laa kar idhar udhar se pahaaRoN ko kaaT kar
yakdam8 meN pul banaaya samandar ko paaT9 kar   
1.special order 2.worried 3.word not found 4.spear 5.immediately 6.determined effort 7.honour, dignity, power 8.immediately 9.span, cover
When nal and neel heard this special order, they were worried but they immediately took their tools with determination. As soon as they started, the power of the sea reduced. They were determined such that they stopped only after they had completed the bridge. Bringing rocks by cutting/quarrying hills around, they soon spanned the sea with their bridge.

After the bridge was ready, the order to attack was given.
6
sub afsaroN ne hukm ye sunte hi barmala1
raghubar2 charan-kamal3 meN chit4 apna laga laga
jai jai ke naa’re maar ke shastar5 liye uTha
tayyaar hone fauj ka baaja diya baja
jab aaii fauj saj ke to phir chhaaNT6 chhaaNT kar
chaar hisse kar liye us sub ke baaNT7 kar   
1.openly, publicly 2.raam 3.lotus feet 4.head 5.shastr, weapons 6.sort 7.divide
All the officers, upon hearing this order, came and touching their foreheads to raam’s lotus feet, raising a cry of victory, picked up their weapons. They beat the gong of war to get the army ready. When all the forces came ready in uniform, they sorted and divided them into four parts.

7
ek ek juz1 har ek dar-e-laNk2 par DaTa3
chaaroN taraf se gher liya chha gayi ghaTa
dekh us bikat4 ghaTa ko jigar5-e aasmaaN phaTa
raavan ne Ghul6 suna to kaha us ne chaRh aTa7
dekho ye bandaroN ki DhaTaaii8 ke aan kar
kya Ghul6 macha rahe haiN mera bal9 na jaan kar   
1.part 2.door of laNka (fort) 3.determined position 4.fearsome 5.liver (seat of courage) 6.commotion 7.a tower in laNka fort 8.daring, foolhardiness 9.power
Each of the four parts went to each of the doors of laNka and took a determined stand. They surrounded it from all four sides. A great cloud spread above. Seeing this fearsome cloud, even the sky lost its courage. When raavan heard this commotion, he went up a tower to look and said – look at these foolhardy monkies, they come here and make all this noise not knowing my power.

8
yaaN fauj baanaroN1 ki thi jaaNbaaz2 o be-uzar3
aur fauj-e rakhshasaan thi KhooNKhwaar sub udhar
donoN taraf ki fauj ne yakdam sajal sudhar
hamla kiya to kii na kisi ne bhi darguzar4
maidaan-e juNg meN tah-o-baala5 macha diya
goya6 namoona7 fitna-e-mahshar8 dikha diya   
1.monkies 2.life wager 3.without objection/hesitation 4.spare, hold back 5.topsy turvy 6.as if 7.sample, example 8.mischief/troubles of doomsday
On this side, the army of monkies, ready to lay down their lives, without hesitation. On that side, the army of demons was bloodthirsty. The armies on both sides, getting ready in formation, attacked such that no one held back. The battle field turned topsy turvy as if it was a sampling of the havoc of doomsday.

9
is samt1 fauj raam ki tan toR kar laRi
thi us taraf sipaah2-e nashaachar3 DaTi4 khaRi
donoN taraf se tiir ki bochhaar jab paRi
aur barchhiyoN ki run5 meN ani6 se ani laRi
to fauj-e rakhchashoN7 meN karoRoN hi mar gaye
baanar bhi laakhoN jaam-e-ajal8 nosh9 kar gaye  
1.direction, side 2.army 3.nocturnals, demons 4.determined stand 5.war 6.point 7.demons 8.cup of death 9.drink
On this side, the army of raam fought giving all that they had. On that side the army of demons remained steadfast. From both sides arrows rained and pointed edge of dagger clashed with dagger resulting crores of deaths of demons. Monkies too, drank of the bitter cup of death by the lakhs.

There are long descriptions of the war with details of individual battles.  Moving on.
lakshman is hit.  To cure him hanuman is sent off to fetch herbs from himalyas.
10
pahchaan ye bataaii ke qudrat1 ke noor2 se
sar-sabz3 Khushnuma4 hai chamakti hai duur se
sanjiivani5 hai naam gunoN6 ke zahoor7 se
laaveN use ukhaaR samajh kar sha’oor8 se
aisa na ho ke jaa ke vahaaN Khaali haath aayeN
ya aur koii duusri booTi ukhaaR laayeN    
1.nature 2.light 3.fresh 4.beautiful 5.life giving herb 6.qualities 7.manifestation 8.wisdom, knowledge
lakshman has been killed/is in a coma. A magical herb has to be fetched from the himalayas and hanuman is being instructed on how to find it and bring it back. The muni told hanuman how to recognize the herb. It has a natural light, is fresh and beautiful, and glows from afar. It is called ‘sanjiivani’ because of the manifestation of its (life-giving) qualities.You should harvest it and bring it using your knowledge. Let it not be that you return empty-handed or bring some other herb.

11
chal kar abhi ye pahuNche na the us pahaaR par
paa kar kisi se jaane ki un ke vahaaN Khabar1
raavan ne paRh ba-Ghaur2 tilismaat3 ka sahar4
hanuman pahlvaaN ke pahuNchne se peshtar5
sub booTiyoN ko shakl meN yaksaaN6 bana diya
jaadu ki raushni se unheN jagmaga diya   
1.news 2.carefully 3.magic 4.wizardry, spell 5.before 6.similar, same
hanuman had not yet reached the mountain when raavan got news of his departure from someone and carefully chanting magic chants, by force of wizardry, cast a spell, before hanuman could get there. He changed all the herbs to look alike. With his magic spell he made them all glow bright.

The final battle.  raam and raavan duel one on one.
12
mashriq1 se aaye Khusrav-e-Khaavar2 ke jab qudoom3
aur ho gaya falak4 se hava5 lashkar-e-nujoom6
yaa’ni subah hui to yahaaN fauj bil-umoom7
tayyaar ho ke chaRh gaye laNka pe jhoom jhoom
chaaroN taraf se gher ke DaNka baja diya
ghor aur garaj ke shor-e-qayaamat8 macha diya   
1.east 2.imperial sun 3.steps 4.skies 5.disappear in thin air 6.army/cluster of stars 7.like usual 8.tumult of doomsday
When the royal sun rose from the east and stars disappeared from the sky, when dawn emerged, the army as usual, got ready and attacked laNka with gusto. Surrounding it from four sides, they sounded the gong of war. Like dark clouds and thunder, they created a tumult like doomsday.

13
raavan sun is Khabar1 ko Khabardaar2 ho gaya
hosh3 uR rahe the jis ke vo hoshiyaar4 ho gaya
fauran5 hi uTh laRaai ko tayyaar ho gaya
rath6 par savaar apne vo KhooNKhwaar7 ho gaya
fauj-e nashaacharaan8 bhi saj saj ke aa gayi
kaali ghaTa ghamanD ki har samt9 chhaa gayi    
1.news 2.careful 3.senses 4.sensible, sober 5.immediately 6.chariot 7.bloodthirsty 8.nocturnal, demon 9.direction
As soon as raavan go this news, he became cautious. He had lost his senses in drink, but sobered up. Getting up immediately he got ready for comabat. He mounted his chariot thirsty for blood. The army of demons also arrived all equipped and cleaned up. Dark clouds of pride/hubris spread everywhere.

14
jab raavan apni saari karaamaat1 kho chuka
aur apni zindagaani se bhi haath dho chuka
maidaan saaf bhoot pashaachoN2 se ho chuka
aur devatoN3 ka taal’a4-e taqdiir5 so chuka
to phir vo ek-laKht6 paRa TooT raam par
vaaN haahakaar much gaya devoN7 ke ghaam8 par   
1.abilities, tricks 2.cannibals, demons 3.gods 4.ill-omen (different pronunciation means emergence as in sunrise) 5.fate 6.suddenly 7.demons 8.place
When raavan lost all his tricks, and washed his hands of his life. When the field was cleared of all ghosts and demons and the ill-omen of the fate of gods passed, then he suddenly fell on raam. A great tumult arose from the place/gathering of demons.

15
laikin mara na aur bhuja1 sees2 us ke sub
phir ho gaye to raam ne hairaan3 ho ke ab
sub jaan haal4 maut ke aur ho Khanda-lab5
ektees6 tiir gin ke kamaaN kheeNch kheeNch jab
maare jo taak7 taak ke to us ke ek-saath8
phir kaT girey zamin pe sub sees2 aur haath     
1.arms 2.head 3.amazed 4.situation 5.smile 6.thirty one 7.aim 8.all together
But he did not die and his arms and heads grew back again (raavan had ten heads and twenty arms and had received a boon that whenever his arm or his head would be cut, another one would grow in its place. Apparently, the boon did not apply when they were all cut at once). Amazed, raam guessed/understood the situation and smiled. He counted out 31 arrows (one each for his heads and arms and one for his heart). Taking careful aim he quickly strung his bow and shot his arrows in quick succession to cut off his arms and heads and pierce his heart simultaneously.

na-ma’loom/unknown poet.  I could not find a date of publication either nor could I find when/where/how a print or manuscript was found.  In a similar way there was a faarsi handwritten manuscript by harballabh seTh that someone found among their family papers and published it.  There may be quite a few such compositions.  This selection describes the battle to kill raavan.  There are many details of individual duels and major battles.  Only an extremely small sample is presented here.

Building a bridge.
1
jab dal1 ke dal vo fauj ke saagar pe chhaa gaye
bhaaii ko chhoR apne bhibeekan2 bhi aa gaye
jo daas3 ho ke raam ke, man sub ke bhaa gaye
aur raam raazdaar4 ko laNka ke paa gaye
tab fikr5 ye hui pae6-e aaGhaaz7-e kaarzaar8
saagar se in daloN ki ab ho kis tarah utaar

1.squad 2.raavan’s brother 3.slave, devotee 4.confidant, informant 5.worry, concern 6.intent, purpose 7.beginning 8.war, attack

All the squads were gathered hovering over the ocean.  bhibeekan, raavan’s brother, had left him and come over to raam.  By becoming a devotee of raam, he won the hearts of all and raam acquired an informant of the inner secrets of laNka.  Now the concern was that to start the attack, how were they going to get all these squads of the army across the ocean.
2
ye soch aur jumla1 araakiN2 ko kar talab3
biThla ke paas ho ke muKhaatab4 ba-Khanda-lab5
farmaaya6 yuN bataaiye kar ke salaah7 sub
saagar se paar utarne ki tadbeer8 kya hai ab
ye sun ke kar ke mashvara9 sub ne kaha huzoor
tayyar10 hona chaahiye ek pul pae11-e uboor12

1.total, all 2.members 3.summon 4.address 5.smile 6.announce 7.consultation 8.method, plan 9.suggestion 10.ready 11.intention, purpose 12.across

Thinking thus, he (raam) summoned all his partners, addressing them with a smile he announced that they consult with each other and come up with a plan to cross the ocean.  Hearing this, they all took suggestions and said, ‘Lord, it is necessary to prepare/construct a bridge to get across’.
3
jis ne ke aabru1 thi baRhaaii samudr2 ki
ab us se paar hone ki us ko hi fikr3 thi
har roop rakh samajh ke zaroori-o-laazimi4
pul baandhne ki bhakt bhibeekan5 se raaye6 li
baad is ke jaamvant7 ko bulva ke ye kaha
pul baandh saari fauj ko do paar ab laga

1.dignity 2.ocean 3.worry 4.necessary and essential 5.devotee bhibeekan (brother of raavan) 6.suggention 7.leader of the army of bears

This has reference to the story of creation when vishnu upheld the dignity of the ocean.  Ironically, raam who was a avataar of vishnu was now worried about crossing the same ocean.  Understanding all requirements of behaviour and consideration as necessary, he consulted bhibeekan (vibheeshan) and calling jaamvant asked him to build a bridge and get the whole army across.
4
phir jaamvant1 ji ne nal2 o neel2 ko bula
fauran3 hi hukm baandhne pul ka diya suna
aur ye kaha ke mil ke sub aur jaan-o-tan4 laga
ye kaam jald5 kar sri raghubar6 ko do dikha
hoga maqaam7 raat ka saagar se paar ho
aisa na ho ke dayr ho aur intezaar8 ho

1.king of the bears 2.two brothers who were skilled at bridge building 3.immediately 4.heart and soul 5.soon 6.another name of raam 7.place/time 8.wait

Then jaamvant called nal and neel ordered them to immediately build a bridge and said that they should apply their hearts and soul to the task.  They should complete the project soon and show it to raam.  By the time of nightfall we should be able to cross the sea.  Let there be no delay, let us not have to wait.
5
sun kar ye hukm-e-Khaas1 nal o neel aTpaTe2
kup3 bhaal4 le ke saath meN fauran5 hi jaa DaTe6
DaTte hi un ke, maan7 samandar ke sub ghaTe
aur vo DaTe kuchh aise ke pul baandh kar haTe
laa kar idhar udhar se pahaaRoN ko kaaT kar
yakdam8 meN pul banaaya samandar ko paaT9 kar

1.special order 2.worried 3.word not found 4.spear 5.immediately 6.determined effort 7.honour, dignity, power 8.immediately 9.span, cover

When nal and neel heard this special order, they were worried but they immediately took their tools with determination.  As soon as they started, the power of the sea reduced.  They were determined such that they stopped only after they had completed the bridge.  Bringing rocks by cutting/quarrying hills around, they soon spanned the sea with their bridge.

After the bridge was ready, the order to attack was given.
6
sub afsaroN ne hukm ye sunte hi barmala1
raghubar2 charan-kamal3 meN chit4 apna laga laga
jai jai ke naa’re maar ke shastar5 liye uTha
tayyaar hone fauj ka baaja diya baja
jab aaii fauj saj ke to phir chhaaNT6 chhaaNT kar
chaar hisse kar liye us sub ke baaNT7 kar

1.openly, publicly 2.raam 3.lotus feet 4.head 5.shastr, weapons 6.sort 7.divide

All the officers, upon hearing this order, came and touching their foreheads to raam’s lotus feet, raising a cry of victory, picked up their weapons.  They beat the gong of war to get the army ready.  When all the forces came ready in uniform, they sorted and divided them into four parts.
7
ek ek juz1 har ek dar-e-laNk2 par DaTa3
chaaroN taraf se gher liya chha gayi ghaTa
dekh us bikat4 ghaTa ko jigar5-e aasmaaN phaTa
raavan ne Ghul6 suna to kaha us ne chaRh aTa7
dekho ye bandaroN ki DhaTaaii8 ke aan kar
kya Ghul6 macha rahe haiN mera bal9 na jaan kar

1.part 2.door of laNka (fort) 3.determined position 4.fearsome 5.liver (seat of courage) 6.commotion 7.a tower in laNka fort 8.daring, foolhardiness 9.power

Each of the four parts went to each of the doors of laNka and took a determined stand.  They surrounded it from all four sides.  A great cloud spread above.  Seeing this fearsome cloud, even the sky lost its courage.  When raavan heard this commotion, he went up a tower to look and said – look at these foolhardy monkies, they come here and make all this noise not knowing my power.
8
yaaN fauj baanaroN1 ki thi jaaNbaaz2 o be-uzar3
aur fauj-e rakhshasaan thi KhooNKhwaar sub udhar
donoN taraf ki fauj ne yakdam sajal sudhar
hamla kiya to kii na kisi ne bhi darguzar4
maidaan-e juNg meN tah-o-baala5 macha diya
goya6 namoona7 fitna-e-mahshar8 dikha diya

1.monkies 2.life wager 3.without objection/hesitation 4.spare, hold back 5.topsy turvy 6.as if 7.sample, example 8.mischief/troubles of doomsday

On this side, the army of monkies, ready to lay down their lives, without hesitation.  On that side, the army of demons was bloodthirsty.  The armies on both sides, getting ready in formation, attacked such that no one held back.  The battle field turned topsy turvy as if it was a sampling of the havoc of doomsday.
9
is samt1 fauj raam ki tan toR kar laRi
thi us taraf sipaah2-e nashaachar3 DaTi4 khaRi
donoN taraf se tiir ki bochhaar jab paRi
aur barchhiyoN ki run5 meN ani6 se ani laRi
to fauj-e rakhchashoN7 meN karoRoN hi mar gaye
baanar bhi laakhoN jaam-e-ajal8 nosh9 kar gaye

1.direction, side 2.army 3.nocturnals, demons 4.determined stand 5.war 6.point 7.demons 8.cup of death 9.drink

On this side, the army of raam fought giving all that they had.  On that side the army of demons remained steadfast.  From both sides arrows rained and pointed edge of dagger clashed with dagger resulting crores of deaths of demons.  Monkies too, drank of the bitter cup of death by the lakhs.

There are long descriptions of the war with details of individual battles.  Moving on.
lakshman is hit.  To cure him hanuman is sent off to fetch herbs from himalyas.
10
pahchaan ye bataaii ke qudrat1 ke noor2 se
sar-sabz3 Khushnuma4 hai chamakti hai duur se
sanjiivani5 hai naam gunoN6 ke zahoor7 se
laaveN use ukhaaR samajh kar sha’oor8 se
aisa na ho ke jaa ke vahaaN Khaali haath aayeN
ya aur koii duusri booTi ukhaaR laayeN

1.nature 2.light 3.fresh 4.beautiful 5.life giving herb 6.qualities 7.manifestation 8.wisdom, knowledge

lakshman has been killed/is in a coma.  A magical herb has to be fetched from the himalayas and hanuman is being instructed on how to find it and bring it back.  The muni told hanuman how to recognize the herb.  It has a natural light, is fresh and beautiful, and glows from afar.  It is called ‘sanjiivani’ because of the manifestation of its (life-giving) qualities.You should harvest it and bring it using your knowledge.  Let it not be that you return empty-handed or bring some other herb.
11
chal kar abhi ye pahuNche na the us pahaaR par
paa kar kisi se jaane ki un ke vahaaN Khabar1
raavan ne paRh ba-Ghaur2 tilismaat3 ka sahar4
hanuman pahlvaaN ke pahuNchne se peshtar5
sub booTiyoN ko shakl meN yaksaaN6 bana diya
jaadu ki raushni se unheN jagmaga diya

1.news 2.carefully 3.magic 4.wizardry, spell 5.before 6.similar, same

hanuman had not yet reached the mountain when raavan got news of his departure from someone and carefully chanting magic chants, by force of wizardry, cast a spell, before hanuman could get there.  He changed all the herbs to look alike.  With his magic spell he made them all glow bright.

The final battle.  raam and raavan duel one on one.
12
mashriq1 se aaye Khusrav-e-Khaavar2 ke jab qudoom3
aur ho gaya falak4 se hava5 lashkar-e-nujoom6
yaa’ni subah hui to yahaaN fauj bil-umoom7
tayyaar ho ke chaRh gaye laNka pe jhoom jhoom
chaaroN taraf se gher ke DaNka baja diya
ghor aur garaj ke shor-e-qayaamat8 macha diya

1.east 2.imperial sun 3.steps 4.skies 5.disappear in thin air 6.army/cluster of stars 7.like usual 8.tumult of doomsday

When the royal sun rose from the east and stars disappeared from the sky, when dawn emerged, the army as usual, got ready and attacked laNka with gusto.  Surrounding it from four sides, they sounded the gong of war.  Like dark clouds and thunder, they created a tumult like doomsday.
13
raavan sun is Khabar1 ko Khabardaar2 ho gaya
hosh3 uR rahe the jis ke vo hoshiyaar4 ho gaya
fauran5 hi uTh laRaai ko tayyaar ho gaya
rath6 par savaar apne vo KhooNKhwaar7 ho gaya
fauj-e nashaacharaan8 bhi saj saj ke aa gayi
kaali ghaTa ghamanD ki har samt9 chhaa gayi

1.news 2.careful 3.senses 4.sensible, sober 5.immediately 6.chariot 7.bloodthirsty 8.nocturnal, demon 9.direction

As soon as raavan go this news, he became cautious.  He had lost his senses in drink, but sobered up.  Getting up immediately he got ready for comabat.  He mounted his chariot thirsty for blood.  The army of demons also arrived all equipped and cleaned up.  Dark clouds of pride/hubris spread everywhere.
14
jab raavan apni saari karaamaat1 kho chuka
aur apni zindagaani se bhi haath dho chuka
maidaan saaf bhoot pashaachoN2 se ho chuka
aur devatoN3 ka taal’a4-e taqdiir5 so chuka
to phir vo ek-laKht6 paRa TooT raam par
vaaN haahakaar much gaya devoN7 ke ghaam8 par

1.abilities, tricks 2.cannibals, demons 3.gods 4.ill-omen (different pronunciation means emergence as in sunrise) 5.fate 6.suddenly 7.demons 8.place

When raavan lost all his tricks, and washed his hands of his life.  When the field was cleared of all ghosts and demons and the ill-omen of the fate of gods passed, then he suddenly fell on raam.  A great tumult arose from the place/gathering of demons.
15
laikin mara na aur bhuja1 sees2 us ke sub
phir ho gaye to raam ne hairaan3 ho ke ab
sub jaan haal4 maut ke aur ho Khanda-lab5
ektees6 tiir gin ke kamaaN kheeNch kheeNch jab
maare jo taak7 taak ke to us ke ek-saath8
phir kaT girey zamin pe sub sees2 aur haath

1.arms 2.head 3.amazed 4.situation 5.smile 6.thirty one 7.aim 8.all together

But he did not die and his arms and heads grew back again (raavan had ten heads and twenty arms and had received a boon that whenever his arm or his head would be cut, another one would grow in its place.  Apparently, the boon did not apply when they were all cut at once).  Amazed, raam guessed/understood the situation and smiled.  He counted out 31 arrows (one each for his heads and arms and one for his heart).  Taking careful aim he quickly strung his bow and shot his arrows in quick succession to cut off his arms and heads and pierce his heart simultaneously.

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