saaqi naama 01-iqbal

saaqi naama – mohammed iqbal
Introduction

saaqi naama is one of iqbal’s more celebrated urdu compositions.  It is composed in seven distinct sections strung together as a longer thematic nazm.  It is linguistically beautiful and powerful and presents an intertwined composition of disparate strains including a call for rejuvenation of the ummah, a call for restoring the old glory of islam, political observations about colonialism, sufi concepts of universal love and iqbal’s own development of “Khudi”.  “Khudi” as proposed by iqbal is an amorphous mixture of sense of self, pride, self-reliance, self-respect and ego.  It is iqbal’s concept of the “ideal man” and has echoes of Nietzshe’s “Superman” although iqbal explicitly rejects Nietzshe’s atheism.  The “saaqi” in saaqi naama is god to whom iqbal addresses an appeal.  “saaqi naama” is a well established sub-genre of farsi and urdu poetry – there are long compositions of the same title by hafiz and zuhuri.  Very short introductions to each of the seven sections is given below.

Section 1 – Preamble

The preamble describes the beauty of spring and the throbbing energy of new life, calling upon the “saaqi” (the divine) to reveal secrets/mysteries of divinity.  It is supposed to set the stage for a spring like awakening or re-birth in Islam.

Section 2 – Decay under Colonialism

In this section iqbal observes the many changes taking place in the world as people throw off the yoke of colonialism.  At this stage iqbal is still enamoured with the Russian Revolution and speaks highly of that change as well as of Chinese rising up against British Colonization (Opium Wars).  He laments that every community is waking up but the Muslim is still somnambulant.

Section 3 – Restoration

In the preamble iqbal starts with the idea of spring as a metaphor for renewal.  But this metaphor does not lead to a call for reformation but rather to a call for restoration of an imagined ancient glory.  He gives up on the older generation and hopes that the younger generation will be an improvement.  He makes an impassioned plea to the “saaqi” to endow the younger generation with the same passion (divine love akin to Sufism) that drives him.

Section 4 – vahdat-al-vujood

What drives iqbal is the concept of one-ness of all – the creator and creation.  This sufi concept of “vahdat-al-vujood” akin to the Vedic concept of “advaita” is described in a few beautiful asha’ar which also bring out “apparent” contradictions of multiplicity of manifestations of the same spirit, therefore not a contradiction.

Section 5 – manzil

Life is not defined as reaching a “manzil – destination”, says iqbal but as a constant movement, constant struggle.  Life likes the struggle/process more than the destination.  It is this struggle that overcomes death and rejuvenates itself.

Section 6 – Khudi

iqbal defines “Khudi” in linguistically beautiful terms as a combination of almost super-human qualities of self-reliance and individuality.  The underpinning is to call on youth to acquire “Khudi”.  “Khudi” is one with the “divine spirit” going back to the concept of vahdat-al-vujood.

Section 7 – The Message

The concluding section is largely a further definition of “Khudi” combined with a call to action.  “Khudi” does not bow to power.  Basic sustenance is but the first stage of “Khudi” and there are many worlds beyond this waiting for your onslaught, waiting to be conquered.  Says iqbal, “there is much more in my heart, but if I fly beyond this, my wings will be singed”.  It is up to you, O reader, to take it forward.

ساقی نامہ ۔ محمد اقبال

حصہ ۱

 

ہوا خیمہ زن کاروانِ بہار

اِرم بن گیا دامنِ کوہسار

گل و نرگس و سوسن و نسترن

شہیدِ ازل لالہ خونی کفن

 

جہاں چھپ گیا پردۂ رنگ میں

لہو کی ہے گردش رگِ سنگ میں

فضا نیلی نیلی ہوا میں سرور

ٹہرتے نہیں آشیاں میں طیوُر

 

وہ جوئے کوہستاں اُچکتی ہوی

اٹکتی  لچکتی   سرکتی    ہوی

رکے جب تو سِل چیر دیتی ہے یہ

پہاڑوں کے دِل چیر دیتی ہے یہ

 

ذرا دیکھ ائے ساقیِ لالہ فام

سناتی ہے یہ زندگی کا  پیام

پلا دے مجھے وہ مئے  پردہ سوز

کے آتی نہیں فصلِ گلُ روز روز

 

وہ مئے جس سے روشن ضمیرِ حیات

وہ مئے جس سے ہے مستیِ کایٰنات

وہ مئے جس میں ہے سوز و سازِ ازل

وہ مئے جس سے کھلتا ہے رازِ ازل

 

اُٹھا ساقیا پردہ اِس راز سے

لڑا دے ممولے کو شہباز

साक़ी नामा – मोहम्मद इक़बाल

 

हुआ ख़ैमा-ज़न कारवान-ए बहार
इरम बन गया दामन ए कोहसार
गुल ओ नरगिस ओ सोसन ओ नस्तरन
शहीद ए अज़ल लाला ख़ूनी कफ़न
जहाँ छुप गया पर्दा-ए रंग में

लहू की है गर्दिश रग-ए संग में

फ़िज़ा नीली नीली हवा में सुरूर
टहरते नहीं आशियाँ में तुयूर
वो जू-ए कोहस्तां उचकती हुई
अटकती लचकती सिरकती हुई
रुके जब तो सिल चीर देती है ये

पहाड़ों के दिल चीर देती है ये

 

ज़रा देख अए साक़ी-ए लाला फ़ाम
सुनाती है ये ज़िन्दगी का पयाम
पिला दे मुझे वो मए-ए पर्दा सोज़

के आती नहीं फ़स्ल-ए गुल रोज़ रोज़

 

वो मए जिस से रौशन ज़मीर-ए हयात
वो मए जिस से है मस्ती-ए काएनात
वो मए जिस में है सोज़ ओ साज़-ए अज़ल
वो मए जिस से खुलता है राज़-ए अज़ल
उठा साक़िया पर्दा इस राज़ से

लड़ा दे ममोले को शहबाज़ से

 

saaqi naama – mohammed iqbal
Section 01

Click here for background and any passage for meanings and discussion.  The preamble describes the beauty of spring and the throbbing energy of new life, calling upon the “saaqi” (the divine) to reveal secrets/mysteries of divinity. It is supposed to set the stage for a spring like awakening or re-birth in Islam. See “Background Tab” for a full introduction.

hua Khaima-zan1 kaarvaan-e bahaar2
iram3 ban gaya daaman-e kohsaar4
gul5 o nargis6 o sosan7 o nastaran8
shaheed-e azal9 laala10 Khooni kafan
1.camped 2.spring 3.garden of Eden 4.apron of the hills i.e. valley 5.rose 6.narcissus 7.lily 8.white rose 9.eternal martyr 10.tulip (with blood red shroud)
A beautiful description of the coming of spring to the valleys/foothills. The caravan of spring has made its camp and turned the valley into a heavenly garden. Flowers (rose, narcissus, lily and tulip) bloom all around (the tulip is metaphorically called the eternal martyr because its stamen look like a bleeding heart).

jahaaN chhup gaya parda-e raNg meN
lahu1 ki hai gardish2 rag-e saNg3 meN
fiza4 neeli neeli hava meN suroor5
Taharte nahiN aashiyaaN6 meN tuyoor
1.blood 2.flow 13.veins of stone 4.atmosphere, ambience 5.joy 6.nest 7.birds The world is hidden behind a curtain of colour.
It is throbbing with so much life that blood flows through even the veins of stone. The ambience is azure blue with great joy. Birds do not tarry in their nests.

vo joo1-e kohastaaN2 uchakti hui
aTakti lachakti sarakti hui
rukey jab to sil3 chiir deti hai ye
pahaaRon ke dil chiir deti hai ye
1.brook, river 2.hills 3.slab (of rock)
The description of the mountain brook here has echoes of Tennyson’s “The Brook”. The mountain brook frolicking here, getting there, swaying and circling. If it is stopped it can tear through slabs of rock. It can rip the hearts of mountains.

zara dekh aye saaqi-e lala faam1
sunaati hai ye zindagi ka payaam
pila de mujhe vo mae2-e parda-soz3
ke aati nahiN fasl4-e gul roz roz
1.tulip bodied, beautiful like the tulip 2.wine of (love) 3.veil burning i.e. secret (of existence) revealing 4. season of (rose) i.e. spring
Just see/listen O beautiful saaqi she (mountain brook) sings the message of life. Give me wine (the wine of love – Sufi undertones), wine that burns the veil (between man and god). Do this now, for Spring does not come every day.

vo mae jis se raushan zameer1-e hayaat
vo mae jis se hai masti2-e kayenaat3
vo mae jis meN hai soz o saaz4-e azal5
vo mae jis se khulta hai raaz6-e azal
1.inner meaning (of life/creation) 2.intoxication, happiness 3.creation 4.sorrow and joy 5.eternity 6.secret, mystery (O, saaqi, give me)
The wine which sparkles with the inner meaning of life. The wine the happiness of which permeates the whole universe. The wine which contains joys and sorrows of eternity. The wine that reveals the secrets of eternity (divinity).

uTha saaqiya parda is raaz se
laRa de mamole1 ko shahbaaz2 se
1.sparrow 2.hawk
(When you) lift the veil from this mystery (of creation), you will give the sparrow courage to attack (and overcome) the hawk. The sparrow may be a metaphor for iqbal’s mind and the hawk for the all powerful mystery of existence/creation.

saaqi naama – mohammed iqbal
Section 01

The preamble describes the beauty of spring and the throbbing energy of new life, calling upon the “saaqi” (the divine) to reveal secrets/mysteries of divinity.  It is supposed to set the stage for a spring like awakening or re-birth in Islam.  See “Background Tab” for a full introduction.

hua Khaima-zan1 kaarvaan-e bahaar2
iram3 ban gaya daaman-e kohsaar4
gul5 o nargis6 o sosan7 o nastaran8
shaheed-e azal9 laala10 Khooni kafan

1.camped 2.spring 3.garden of Eden 4.apron of the hills i.e. valley 5.rose 6.narcissus 7.lily 8.white rose 9.eternal martyr 10.tulip (with blood red shroud)

A beautiful description of the coming of spring to the valleys/foothills.  The caravan of spring has made its camp and turned the valley into a heavenly garden.  Flowers (rose, narcissus, lily and tulip) bloom all around (the tulip is metaphorically called the eternal martyr because its stamen look like a bleeding heart).

jahaaN chhup gaya parda-e raNg meN
lahu1 ki hai gardish2 rag-e saNg3 meN
fiza4 neeli neeli hava meN suroor5
Taharte nahiN aashiyaaN6 meN tuyoor7

1.blood 2.flow 13.veins of stone 4.atmosphere, ambience 5.joy 6.nest 7.birds

The world is hidden behind a curtain of colour.  It is throbbing with so much life that blood flows through even the veins of stone.  The ambience is azure blue with great joy.  Birds do not tarry in their nests.

vo joo1-e kohastaaN2 uchakti hui
aTakti lachakti sarakti hui
rukey jab to sil3 chiir deti hai ye
pahaaRon ke dil chiir deti hai ye

1.brook, river 2.hills 3.slab (of rock)

The description of the mountain brook here has echoes of Tennyson’s “The Brook”.  The mountain brook frolicking here, getting there, swaying and circling.  If it is stopped it can tear through slabs of rock. It can rip the hearts of mountains.

zara dekh aye saaqi-e lala faam1
sunaati hai ye zindagi ka payaam
pila de mujhe vo mae2-e parda-soz3
ke aati nahiN fasl4-e gul roz roz

1.tulip bodied, beautiful like the tulip 2.wine of (love) 3.veil burning i.e. secret (of existence) revealing 4. season of (rose) i.e. spring

Just see/listen O beautiful saaqi she (mountain brook) sings the message of life.  Give me wine (the wine of love – Sufi undertones), wine that burns the veil (between man and god).  Do this now, for Spring does not come every day.

vo mae jis se raushan zameer1-e hayaat
vo mae jis se hai masti2-e kayenaat3
vo mae jis meN hai soz o saaz4-e azal5
vo mae jis se khulta hai raaz6-e azal

1.inner meaning (of life/creation) 2.intoxication, happiness 3.creation 4.sorrow and joy 5.eternity 6.secret, mystery

(O, saaqi, give me) The wine which sparkles with the inner meaning of life.  The wine the happiness of which permeates the whole universe.  The wine which contains joys and sorrows of eternity.  The wine that reveals the secrets of eternity (divinity).

uTha saaqiya parda is raaz se
laRa de mamole1 ko shahbaaz2 se

1.sparrow 2.hawk

(When you) lift the veil from this mystery (of creation), you will give the sparrow courage to attack (and overcome) the hawk.  The sparrow may be a metaphor for iqbal’s mind and the hawk for the all powerful mystery of existence/creation.

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