saaqi naama 05-iqbal

saaqi naama – mohammed iqbal
Introduction

saaqi naama is one of iqbal’s more celebrated urdu compositions.  It is composed in seven distinct sections strung together as a longer thematic nazm.  It is linguistically beautiful and powerful and presents an intertwined composition of disparate strains including a call for rejuvenation of the ummah, a call for restoring the old glory of islam, political observations about colonialism, sufi concepts of universal love and iqbal’s own development of “Khudi”.  “Khudi” as proposed by iqbal is an amorphous mixture of sense of self, pride, self-reliance, self-respect and ego.  It is iqbal’s concept of the “ideal man” and has echoes of Nietzshe’s “Superman” although iqbal explicitly rejects Nietzshe’s atheism.  The “saaqi” in saaqi naama is god to whom iqbal addresses an appeal.  “saaqi naama” is a well established sub-genre of farsi and urdu poetry – there are long compositions of the same title by hafiz and zuhuri.  Very short introductions to each of the seven sections is given below.

Section 1 – Preamble

The preamble describes the beauty of spring and the throbbing energy of new life, calling upon the “saaqi” (the divine) to reveal secrets/mysteries of divinity.  It is supposed to set the stage for a spring like awakening or re-birth in Islam.

Section 2 – Decay under Colonialism

In this section iqbal observes the many changes taking place in the world as people throw off the yoke of colonialism.  At this stage iqbal is still enamoured with the Russian Revolution and speaks highly of that change as well as of Chinese rising up against British Colonization (Opium Wars).  He laments that every community is waking up but the Muslim is still somnambulant.

Section 3 – Restoration

In the preamble iqbal starts with the idea of spring as a metaphor for renewal.  But this metaphor does not lead to a call for reformation but rather to a call for restoration of an imagined ancient glory.  He gives up on the older generation and hopes that the younger generation will be an improvement.  He makes an impassioned plea to the “saaqi” to endow the younger generation with the same passion (divine love akin to Sufism) that drives him.

Section 4 – vahdat-al-vujood

What drives iqbal is the concept of one-ness of all – the creator and creation.  This sufi concept of “vahdat-al-vujood” akin to the Vedic concept of “advaita” is described in a few beautiful asha’ar which also bring out “apparent” contradictions of multiplicity of manifestations of the same spirit, therefore not a contradiction.

Section 5 – manzil

Life is not defined as reaching a “manzil – destination”, says iqbal but as a constant movement, constant struggle.  Life likes the struggle/process more than the destination.  It is this struggle that overcomes death and rejuvenates itself.

Section 6 – Khudi

iqbal defines “Khudi” in linguistically beautiful terms as a combination of almost super-human qualities of self-reliance and individuality.  The underpinning is to call on youth to acquire “Khudi”.  “Khudi” is one with the “divine spirit” going back to the concept of vahdat-al-vujood.

Section 7 – The Message

The concluding section is largely a further definition of “Khudi” combined with a call to action.  “Khudi” does not bow to power.  Basic sustenance is but the first stage of “Khudi” and there are many worlds beyond this waiting for your onslaught, waiting to be conquered.  Says iqbal, “there is much more in my heart, but if I fly beyond this, my wings will be singed”.  It is up to you, O reader, to take it forward.

ساقی نامہ – محمد اقبال
حصّہ ۵

 

فریبِ نظر ہے سکون و ثبات
تڑپتا ہے ہر ذرّۂ کائنات
ٹھہرتا نہیں کاروانِ وجود
كہ ہر لحظہ ہے تازہ شانِ وجود

 

سمجھتا ہے تو راز ہے زندگی
فقط ذوقِ پرواز ہے زندگی
بہت اِس نے دیکھے ہیں پست و بلند
سفر اِس کو منزل سے بڑھ کر پسند

 

سفر زندگی كے لئے برگ و ساز
سفر ہے حقیقت حضر ہے مجاز
الجھ كے سلجھنے میں لذّت اِسے
تڑپنے پھڑکنے میں راحت اِسے

 

ہوا جب اسے سامنا موت کا
کٹھن تھا بہت تھامْنا موت کا
اُتَر کر جہانِ مکافات میں
رہی زندگی موت کی گھات میں

 

مذاقِ دوئی سے بنی زوج زوج
اُٹھی دشت و کہسار سے فوج فوج
گل اِس شاخ سے ٹوٹتے بھی رہے
اسی شاخ سے پھوٹتے بھی رہے

 

سمجھتے ہیں ناداں اِسے بے ثبات
اُبھرتا ہے مٹ مٹ كے نقشِ حیات
بڑی تیز جولاں ، بڑی زوُد رس
ازل سے ابد تک رمِ یک نفس

 

زمانہ کہ زنجیرِ ایّام ہے
دموں كے اُلٹ پھیر کا نام ہے

साक़ि नामा – मोहम्मद इक़्बाल

हिस्सा ५

 

फ़रेब-ए नज़र से सुकून ओ सबात

तड़पता है हर ज़र्रा-ए का’एनात

ठहरता नहीं कारवान-ए वुजूद

के हर लहज़ा है ताज़ा शान-ए वुजूद

 

समझता है तू राज़ है ज़िंदगी

फ़क़त ज़ौक़-ए परवाज़ है ज़िंदगी

बहुत इस ने देखे हैं पस्त ओ बलंद

सफ़र इस को मंज़िल से बढ़ कर पसंद

 

सफ़र ज़िंदगी के लिए बर्ग ओ साज़

सफ़र है हक़ीक़त हज़र है मजाज़

उलझ के सुलझने में लज़्ज़त इसे

तड़पने फड़कने में लज़्ज़त इसे

 

हुआ जब इसे सामना मौत का

कठिन था बहुत थामना मौत का

उतर कर जहान-ए मकाफ़ात में

रही ज़िंदगी मौत की घात में

 

मज़ाक़-ए दोई से बनी ज़ौज ज़ौज

उठि दश्त ओ कोहसार से फ़ौज फ़ौज

गुल इस शाख़ से टूट्ते भी रहे

इसी शाख़ से फूट्ते भी रहे

 

समझते हैं नादां इसे बे-सबात

उभरता है मिट मिट के नक़्श-ए हयात

बड़ी तेज़ जौलां, बड़ी ज़ूद रस

अज़ल से अबद तक रम-ए यक नफ़स

 

ज़माना के ज़ंजीर-ए अय्याम है

दमौं के उलट फेर का नाम है

saaqi naama – mohammed iqbal
Section 5

See “Background tab” for full introduction.  Click here for overall comments on this section and click on any passage for meanings and discussion. Life is not defined as reaching a “manzil – destination”, says iqbal but as a constant movement, constant struggle. Life likes the struggle/process more than the destination. It is this struggle that overcomes death and rejuvenates itself. See “Background tab” for a full introduction.

fareb1-e nazar hai sukoon2 o sabaat3
taRapta4 hai har zarra5-e kaa’enaat6
Thahrta nahiN kaarvaan-e vujood7
ke har lahza8 hai taaza9 shaan10-e vujood
1.maya, illusion 2.comfort, satisfaction 3.stability, permanence 4.restlessness, pulsation 5.particle of 6.the universe 7.existence 8.moment 9.refresh, rejuvenated 10.glory
Stability and comfort are nothing but an illusion. Every particle of the universe pulsates constantly. The caravan of existence does not stop, for every moment, the glory of life is renewed.

samajhta hai tu raaz1 hai zindagi
faqat2 zauq3-e parvaaz4 hai zindagi
bahut is ne dekhe haiN past5 o baland6
safar7 is ko manzil8 se baRh kar pasand
1.secret, mystery 2.only 3.desire of 4.flight, soar 5.low 6.high 7.travel, movement, struggle 8.destination
You think life is a mystery. It is not. It is only the desire to soar (acheive). It (life) has seen many ups and downs (along the way). It like the struggle more than the destination.

safar1 zindagi ke liye barg o saaz2
safar hai haqiqat3, hazar4 hai majaaz5
ulajh6 kar sulajhne7 meN lazzat8 ise
taRapne9 phaRakne10 meN raahat11 ise
1.travel, movement, struggle 2.travel kit, life’s provisions 3.reality 4.staying put, inertia, stagnation 5.unreal, illusion 6.entanglement 7.disentanglement 8.pleasure 9.restelessness 10.eagerness 11.comfort
Movement is the provision of Life (Soul/Spirit). Movement is reality, stagnation is illusion. It (Life) enjoys getting entangled (involved) and struggling out of its traps. It finds comfort in restlessness and eagerness.

hua jab ise saamna1 maut ka
kaThin2 tha bahut thaamna3 maut ka
utar kar jahaan-e mukafaat meN
rahi zindagi maut ki ghaat meN
1.confrontation, coming face to face 2.difficult 3.stop, overcome
When it (Life) came face to face with Death, it discovered that controlling/overpowering it was difficult. It did not give up but descended into the world of struggle and retribution and lay in wait to ambush it (Death). Editorial Comment: Life through its constant struggle and renewal extracts retribution from Death.

mazaq1-e doii2 se bani zauj3 zauj
uThi dasht4 o kohsaar5 se fauj6 fauj
gul is shaaKh se TooTte bhi rahe
isi shaaKh se phooTte7 bhi rahe
1.zauq, taste, relish 2.duality 3.pair, couple 4.wilderness 5.hills 6.army, horde, multitude 7.emerging, blooming
Life relishes company and because of this, multitudes arose from the wilderness and hills (of this earth). (Life is like a branch). From the same branch flowers kept falling off even as new blooms emerged. Thus Life continues even if an individual passes.

samajhte haiN nadaaN1 ise be-sabaat2
ubharta3 hai miT4 miT ke naqsh5-e hayaat6
baRi tez-jaulaaN7, baRi zood-ras8
azal9 se abad10 tak rum11-e yak nafas12  
1.simpleton, ignorant 2.without permanence, ephemeral 3.emerges 4.erase 5.sketch, picture 6.life 7.fleet footed 8.far reaching, of quick reach 9.beginning 10.end 11.one breath/moment.
The simpleton thinks that life is ephemeral. But from every erasure of the picture of life, a new picture emerges (making life enduring). It is fast, fleet footed and reaches (its goal) quickly. It travels from the beginning to the end in but one moment.

zamaana1 ke zanjir2 ayyaam3 hai
damauN4 ke ulaT-pher5 ka naam hai
1.times, epoch, era 2.chain 3.day and night 4.breathing 5.in and out
The times are but a continuous chain of days and nights like breathing in and breathing out.

saaqi naama – mohammed iqbal
Section 5

Life is not defined as reaching a “manzil – destination”, says iqbal but as a constant movement, constant struggle.  Life likes the struggle/process more than the destination.  It is this struggle that overcomes death and rejuvenates itself.  See “Background tab” for a full introduction.

fareb1-e nazar hai sukoon2 o sabaat3
taRapta4 hai har zarra5-e kaa’enaat6
Thahrta nahiN kaarvaan-e vujood7
ke har lahza8 hai taaza9 shaan10-e vujood

1.maya, illusion 2.comfort, satisfaction 3.stability, permanence 4.restlessness, pulsation 5.particle of 6.the universe 7.existence 8.moment 9.refresh, rejuvenated 10.glory

Stability and comfort are nothing but an illusion.  Every particle of the universe pulsates constantly.  The caravan of existence does not stop, for every moment, the glory of life is renewed.

samajhta hai tu raaz1 hai zindagi
faqat2 zauq3-e parvaaz4 hai zindagi
bahut is ne dekhe haiN past5 o baland6
safar7 is ko manzil8 se baRh kar pasand

1.secret, mystery 2.only 3.desire of 4.flight, soar 5.low 6.high 7.travel, movement, struggle 8.destination

You think life is a mystery.  It is not.  It is only the desire to soar (acheive).  It (life) has seen many ups and downs (along the way).  It like the struggle more than the destination.

safar1 zindagi ke liye barg o saaz2
safar hai haqiqat3, hazar4 hai majaaz5
ulajh6 kar sulajhne7 meN lazzat8 ise
taRapne9 phaRakne10 meN raahat11 ise

1.travel, movement, struggle 2.travel kit, life’s provisions 3.reality 4.staying put, inertia, stagnation 5.unreal, illusion 6.entanglement 7.disentanglement 8.pleasure 9.restelessness 10.eagerness 11.comfort

Movement is the provision of Life (Soul/Spirit).  Movement is reality, stagnation is illusion.  It (Life) enjoys getting entangled (involved) and struggling out of its traps.  It finds comfort in restlessness and eagerness.

hua jab ise saamna1 maut ka
kaThin2 tha bahut thaamna3 maut ka
utar kar jahaan-e mukafaat meN
rahi zindagi maut ki ghaat meN

1.confrontation, coming face to face 2.difficult 3.stop, overcome

When it (Life) came face to face with Death, it discovered that controlling/overpowering it was difficult.  It did not give up but descended into the world of struggle and retribution and lay in wait to ambush it (Death).  Editorial Comment:  Life through its constant struggle and renewal extracts retribution from Death.

mazaq1-e doii2 se bani zauj3 zauj
uThi dasht4 o kohsaar5 se fauj6 fauj
gul is shaaKh se TooTte bhi rahe
isi shaaKh se phooTte7 bhi rahe

1.zauq, taste, relish 2.duality 3.pair, couple 4.wilderness 5.hills 6.army, horde, multitude 7.emerging, blooming

Life relishes company and because of this, multitudes arose from the wilderness and hills (of this earth).  (Life is like a branch).  From the same branch flowers kept falling off even as new blooms emerged.  Thus Life continues even if an individual passes.

samajhte haiN nadaaN1 ise be-sabaat2
ubharta3 hai miT4 miT ke naqsh5-e hayaat6
baRi tez-jaulaaN7, baRi zood-ras8
azal9 se abad10 tak rum11-e yak nafas12

1.simpleton, ignorant 2.without permanence, ephemeral 3.emerges 4.erase 5.sketch, picture 6.life 7.fleet footed 8.far reaching, of quick reach 9.beginning 10.end 11.one breath/moment.

The simpleton thinks that life is ephemeral.  But from every erasure of the picture of life, a new picture emerges (making life enduring).  It is fast, fleet footed and reaches (its goal) quickly.  It travels from the beginning to the end in but one moment.

zamaana1 ke zanjir2 ayyaam3 hai
damauN4 ke ulaT-pher5 ka naam hai

1.times, epoch, era 2.chain 3.day and night 4.breathing 5.in and out

The times are but a continuous chain of days and nights like breathing in and breathing out.

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