saaqi naama 04-iqbal

saaqi naama – mohammed iqbal
Introduction

saaqi naama is one of iqbal’s more celebrated urdu compositions.  It is composed in seven distinct sections strung together as a longer thematic nazm.  It is linguistically beautiful and powerful and presents an intertwined composition of disparate strains including a call for rejuvenation of the ummah, a call for restoring the old glory of islam, political observations about colonialism, sufi concepts of universal love and iqbal’s own development of “Khudi”.  “Khudi” as proposed by iqbal is an amorphous mixture of sense of self, pride, self-reliance, self-respect and ego.  It is iqbal’s concept of the “ideal man” and has echoes of Nietzshe’s “Superman” although iqbal explicitly rejects Nietzshe’s atheism.  The “saaqi” in saaqi naama is god to whom iqbal addresses an appeal.  “saaqi naama” is a well established sub-genre of farsi and urdu poetry – there are long compositions of the same title by hafiz and zuhuri.  Very short introductions to each of the seven sections is given below.

Section 1 – Preamble

The preamble describes the beauty of spring and the throbbing energy of new life, calling upon the “saaqi” (the divine) to reveal secrets/mysteries of divinity.  It is supposed to set the stage for a spring like awakening or re-birth in Islam.

Section 2 – Decay under Colonialism

In this section iqbal observes the many changes taking place in the world as people throw off the yoke of colonialism.  At this stage iqbal is still enamoured with the Russian Revolution and speaks highly of that change as well as of Chinese rising up against British Colonization (Opium Wars).  He laments that every community is waking up but the Muslim is still somnambulant.

Section 3 – Restoration

In the preamble iqbal starts with the idea of spring as a metaphor for renewal.  But this metaphor does not lead to a call for reformation but rather to a call for restoration of an imagined ancient glory.  He gives up on the older generation and hopes that the younger generation will be an improvement.  He makes an impassioned plea to the “saaqi” to endow the younger generation with the same passion (divine love akin to Sufism) that drives him.

Section 4 – vahdat-al-vujood

What drives iqbal is the concept of one-ness of all – the creator and creation.  This sufi concept of “vahdat-al-vujood” akin to the Vedic concept of “advaita” is described in a few beautiful asha’ar which also bring out “apparent” contradictions of multiplicity of manifestations of the same spirit, therefore not a contradiction.

Section 5 – manzil

Life is not defined as reaching a “manzil – destination”, says iqbal but as a constant movement, constant struggle.  Life likes the struggle/process more than the destination.  It is this struggle that overcomes death and rejuvenates itself.

Section 6 – Khudi

iqbal defines “Khudi” in linguistically beautiful terms as a combination of almost super-human qualities of self-reliance and individuality.  The underpinning is to call on youth to acquire “Khudi”.  “Khudi” is one with the “divine spirit” going back to the concept of vahdat-al-vujood.

Section 7 – The Message

The concluding section is largely a further definition of “Khudi” combined with a call to action.  “Khudi” does not bow to power.  Basic sustenance is but the first stage of “Khudi” and there are many worlds beyond this waiting for your onslaught, waiting to be conquered.  Says iqbal, “there is much more in my heart, but if I fly beyond this, my wings will be singed”.  It is up to you, O reader, to take it forward.

ساقی نامہ – محمد اقبال
حصّہ ۴

 

دمادم رواں ہے یمِ زندگی
ہر اک شئے سے  پیدا رمِ زندگی
اسی سے ہوئی ہے بدن کی نمود
كہ شعلے میں پوشیدہ ہے موجِ دوُد

 

گراں گرچہ ہے صحبتِ آب و گِل
خوش آئی اسے محنتِ آب و گِل
یہ ثابت بھی ہے اور سیّار بھی
عناصر كے پھندوں سے بیزار بھی

 

یہ وحدت ہے کثرت میں ہر دم اسیر
مگر ہر کہیں بے چگوں بے نظیر
یہ عالم یہ بُت خانۂ شش جہات
اسی نے تراشا ہے یہ سومنات

 

پسند اِس کو تکرار کی خوُ نہیں
كہ تو میں نہیں اور میں تو نہیں
من و تو سے ہے انجمن آفریں
مگر عین محفل میں خلوت نشیں

 

چمک اِس کی بجلی میں تارے میں ہے
یہ چاندی میں ، سونے میں ، پارے میں ہے
اِسی کے  بیابان ، اِسی كے  ببول
اِسی كے ہیں کانٹے، اِسی كے ہیں پھول

 

کہیں اِس کی طاقت سے کہسار چور
کہیں اِس كے پھندے میں جِبریل و حور
کہیں جرہ شاہینِ سیماب رنگ
لہو سے چکوروں كے آلودہ چنگ

 

کبوتر کہیں آشیانے سے دور
پھڑکتا ہوا جال میں ناصبور

साक़ि नामा – मोहम्मद इक़्बाल

हिस्सा ४

 

दमादम रवां है यम-ए ज़िंदगी

हर एक शै से पैदा रम-ए ज़िंदगी

इसी से हुई है बदन की नुमूद

के शोले में पोशीदा है मौज-ए दूद

 

गिरां गर चे है सोहबत-ए आब ओ गिल

ख़ुश आई इसे मेहनत-ए आब ओ गिल

ये साबित भी है और सय्यार भी

अनासिर के फन्दौं से बेज़ार भी

 

ये वहदत है कसरत में हर दम असीर

मगर हर कहीं बे-चगूं बे-नज़ीर

ये आलम ये बुत-ख़ाना-ए शश जेहात

इसी ने तराशा है ये सोमनात

 

पसंद इस को तकरार की ख़ू नहीं

के तू मैं नहीं और मैं तू नहीं

मन ओ तू से है अंजुमन आफ़रीं

मगर अयेन महफ़िल में ख़िलवत नशीं

 

चमक इस की बिजली में तारे में है

ये चाँदी में, सोने में, पारे में है

इसी के बियाबां, इसी के बबूल

इसी के हैं कांटे इसी के हैं फूल

 

कहीं इस की ताक़त से कोहसार चूर

कहीं इस के फंदे में जिब्रिल ओ हूर

कहीं जुरह शाहीन-ए सीमाब रंग

लहू से चकोरौं के आलूदा चंग

 

कबूतर कहीं आशियाने से दूर

फडकता हुआ जाल में नासुबूर

saaqi naama – mohammed iqbal
Section 4

Click here for overall comments and on any passage for meanings and discussion.  See Background tab for overall introduction. What drives iqbal is the concept of one-ness of all – the creator and creation. This sufi concept of “vahdat-al-vujood” akin to the Vedic concept of “advaita” is described in a few beautiful asha’ar which also bring out “apparent” contradictions of multiplicity of manifestations of the same spirit, therefore not a contradiction. See “Background tab” for a full introduction.

damaadam1 ravaaN2 hai yam3-e zindagi
har shai4 se paida ram5-e zindagi
isi se hui hai badan ki numood6
ke shole7 meN poshida8 hai mauj9-e dood10 
1.minute by minute, constantly 2.flowing 3.river 4.thing 5.run, dynamism 6.appearance, manifestation 7.flame 8.hidden 9.wave 10.smoke
The river of life/soul flows constantly. Everything contains in it the dymamism (movement, run) of life/soul. It is this dynamism of life/spirit that gives birth to the body just like the wisp of smoke is hidden in the flame.

giraaN1 garche2 hai sohbat3-e aab-o-gil4
Khush aaii isay mehnat-e aab-o-gil
ye saabit5 bhi hai aur sayyar6 bhi
anaasir7 ke phandauN8 se bezaar9 bhi
1.heavy, unbearable 2.even though 3.company, association 4.water and clay – human body 5.stationary, confined 6.moving, free 7.elements 8.noose, trap 9.tired of
iqbal describes the struggle between spirit and body. Even though the spirit finds the burden of the body unbearable, it accepts it because it is pleased with the effort that the body makes. It is confined in the body and at the same time a free spirit. It is tired of the entrapment in elements (fire, water, air and clay).

ye vahdat1 hai kasrat2 meN har-dam3 asiir4
magar har kahiN be-chegooN5 be-naziir6
ye aalam7 ye but-Khaana8-e shash-jehaat9
isi ne taraasha10 hai ye somnath11 
1.unity – vahdat-al-vujood, advaita 2.multiplicity 3.always 4.imprisoned 5.immaterial i.e. spiritual 6.without example, unique 7.world 8.house of idols 9.six directions 10.carved, sculpted 11.the temple of somnath used as a symbold of the material world
It is the same one spirit that manifests itself in all multiplicities. It is itself at the same time not material (but spiritual) and is unique. This world of six directions, this idol house like the beautiful somnath has been sculpted by this spirit.

pasand is to takraar1 ki Khoo2 nahiN
ke tu maiN nahiN aur maiN tu nahiN
man-o-tu3 se hai anjuman4 aafriN5
magar ain6 mahfil7 meN Khilwat-nashiN8 
1.duplication (as in mukarrar) 2.nature 3.you and me, individuals 4.gathering 5.acclaimed, laudable 6.focus, centre 7.gathering 8.taking seclusion, withdrawing
It (the spirit/soul) does not like the nature of duplication/multiplicity. That is why all of us are different, I am not you and you are not me. It is because of all of us that our gathering is so pleasant and laudable but in the middle of this gathering the spirit is able to keep itself secluded.

chamak is ki bijli meN taare meN hai
ye chaandi meN, sonay meN, paare meN hai
isi ke biyabaaN1 isi ke babool2
isi ke haiN kaaNTe is ke haiN phool
1.wilderness 2.acacia, thorny brush
It is the same spirit that shines in lightning and in stars, in silver, gold and mercury. It is manifest in the wilderness and thorny brush in thorns and flowers.

kahiN is ki taaqat se kohsaar1 choor
kahiN is ke phande2 meN jibreel3 o hoor4
kahiN jurah-shaheen5-e seemaab-raNg6
lahu se chakorauN7 ke aalooda8 chaNg9 
1.hills, mountains 2.noose, net 3.Gabriel 4.angels 5.male falcon used here to mean attacking/hunting falcon 6.colour of mercury, shining white 7.partridges 8.smeared 9.claws, talons
It (soul/spirit) can pulverize mountains with its strength or capture angels in its noose. Sometimes it manifests itself as the silvery white falcon on the hunt, its talons dripping with the blood of partridge. Here iqbal means to show that the hunter hunted in nature are all part of the same spirit.

kabootar kahiN aashiyaane1 se duur
phaRakta hua jaal meN na-suboor
1.nest 2.impatiently
iqbal continues the theme of the hunter/hunted and the same spirit manifest in both. Here the picture is of a helpless dove caught in a net far away from its nest, flapping its wings impatiently/helplessly. The same spirit is manifest in this too.

saaqi naama – mohammed iqbal
Section 4

What drives iqbal is the concept of one-ness of all – the creator and creation.  This sufi concept of “vahdat-al-vujood” akin to the Vedic concept of “advaita” is described in a few beautiful asha’ar which also bring out “apparent” contradictions of multiplicity of manifestations of the same spirit, therefore not a contradiction.
See “Background tab” for a full introduction.

damaadam1 ravaaN2 hai yam3-e zindagi
har shai4 se paida ram5-e zindagi
isi se hui hai badan ki numood6
ke shole7 meN poshida8 hai mauj9-e dood10

1.minute by minute, constantly 2.flowing 3.river 4.thing 5.run, dynamism 6.appearance, manifestation 7.flame 8.hidden 9.wave 10.smoke

The river of life/soul flows constantly.  Everything contains in it the dymamism (movement, run) of life/soul.  It is this dynamism of life/spirit that gives birth to the body just like the wisp of smoke is hidden in the flame.

giraaN1 garche2 hai sohbat3-e aab-o-gil4
Khush aaii isay mehnat-e aab-o-gil
ye saabit5 bhi hai aur sayyar6 bhi
anaasir7 ke phandauN8 se bezaar9 bhi

1.heavy, unbearable 2.even though 3.company, association 4.water and clay – human body 5.stationary, confined 6.moving, free 7.elements 8.noose, trap 9.tired of

iqbal describes the struggle between spirit and body.  Even though the spirit finds the burden of the body unbearable, it accepts it because it is pleased with the effort that the body makes.  It is confined in the body and at the same time a free spirit.  It is tired of the entrapment in elements (fire, water, air and clay).

ye vahdat1 hai kasrat2 meN har-dam3 asiir4
magar har kahiN be-chegooN5 be-naziir6
ye aalam7 ye but-Khaana8-e shash-jehaat9
isi ne taraasha10 hai ye somnath11

1.unity – vahdat-al-vujood, advaita 2.multiplicity 3.always 4.imprisoned 5.immaterial i.e. spiritual 6.without example, unique 7.world 8.house of idols 9.six directions 10.carved, sculpted 11.the temple of somnath used as a symbold of the material world

It is the same one spirit that manifests itself in all multiplicities.  It is itself at the same time not material (but spiritual) and is unique.  This world of six directions, this idol house like the beautiful somnath has been sculpted by this spirit.

pasand is to takraar1 ki Khoo2 nahiN
ke tu maiN nahiN aur maiN tu nahiN
man-o-tu3 se hai anjuman4 aafriN5
magar ain6 mahfil7 meN Khilwat-nashiN8

1.duplication (as in mukarrar) 2.nature 3.you and me, individuals 4.gathering 5.acclaimed, laudable 6.focus, centre 7.gathering 8.taking seclusion, withdrawing

It (the spirit/soul) does not like the nature of duplication/multiplicity.  That is why all of us are different, I am not you and you are not me.  It is because of all of us that our gathering is so pleasant and laudable but in the middle of this gathering the spirit is able to keep itself secluded.

chamak is ki bijli meN taare meN hai
ye chaandi meN, sonay meN, paare meN hai
isi ke biyabaaN1 isi ke babool2
isi ke haiN kaaNTe is ke haiN phool

1.wilderness 2.acacia, thorny brush

It is the same spirit that shines in lightning and in stars, in silver, gold and mercury.  It is manifest in the wilderness and thorny brush in thorns and flowers.

kahiN is ki taaqat se kohsaar1 choor
kahiN is ke phande2 meN jibreel3 o hoor4
kahiN jurah-shaheen5-e seemaab-raNg6
lahu se chakorauN7 ke aalooda8 chaNg9

1.hills, mountains 2.noose, net 3.Gabriel 4.angels 5.male falcon used here to mean attacking/hunting falcon 6.colour of mercury, shining white 7.partridges 8.smeared 9.claws, talons

It (soul/spirit) can pulverize mountains with its strength or capture angels in its noose.  Sometimes it manifests itself as the silvery white falcon on the hunt, its talons dripping with the blood of partridge.  Here iqbal means to show that the hunter hunted in nature are all part of the same spirit.

kabootar kahiN aashiyaane1 se duur
phaRakta hua jaal meN na-suboor2

1.nest 2.impatiently

iqbal continues the theme of the hunter/hunted and the same spirit manifest in both.  Here the picture is of a helpless dove caught in a net far away from its nest, flapping its wings impatiently/helplessly.  The same spirit is manifest in this too.

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